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3. Conveying Windows XP

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  1. 3. Deploying Windows XP Thomas LeeChief Technologist QA plcthomas.lee@qa.com

  2. Agenda • Windows XP SP2 Setup Improvements • Two types of Automated Deployment • Scripted Install • Image • Automation of the Installation process • Win PE • XP SP2

  3. Setup Agenda • Unattended setup • WinPE new • Imaging • RIS • Setup Tools

  4. Why not use OEM Build? • Breaks the license • SysPrep is different • Lots of “OEM Stuff” • Product Keys

  5. Automated Installations • Unattended setup • Introduced in NT4 workstation • Scripted automated Windows Setup • Still supported, not recommend for production deployment • Imaging • Uses SysPrep and Microsoft (WIM) or 3rd Party Disk Imaging technology • Copies “Master build” to multiple PCs • Remote Installation Services • Unattended Setup from Server • Imaging from Server (SMS OSD or 3rd party products) • Great for that first build • Not recommended for Production deployment, due to broadcasts and network boot

  6. Unattended Setup • Most flexible deployment option • Also slowest • Starts and runs Windows XP Setup on each computer individually • What you need: • Winnt.exe, Winnt32.exe or CD (BIOS must support bootable CD) • A distribution share with Setup files or Windows XP CD • An answer file (text file) or winnt.sif if running unattended from CD • Consider speed and amount of data transfer this involves compared to an image

  7. Unattend.txt Input of information based on boot menu, or missing points from answer file. First boot experience may require some information input. Unattended Installation Manual Setup

  8. Starting Unattended Install • From DOS/Windows 3.x: winnt.exe /u:<answer file> /s: <source share> • Make sure you have smartdrv.exe loaded • From Windows 9x/NT/WinPE: winnt32.exe /unattend:<answer file> /s: <source share> [ /tempdrive:<target drive> /syspart:<target drive> ] • From CD (computer supports CD boot) - Place winnt.sif file on a floppy disk, boot Setup from CD and insert the floppy when Setup starts • Understand the implications this has on time and network bandwidth

  9. Win PE • Overview • Features • Limitations • Scenarios • Features for Windows PE • Discussion

  10. What is Windows PE? • Reduced version of Windows XP • Can be created from either an x86 based 32 bit OS SKU X64 or an IA64 bit OS Sku today • Windows PE provides full networking, driver injection, WMI support, Ramdisk(SrSP1) • Windows PE is used to build, test and deploy OS images • Windows PE is a base platform for a variety of 3rd party support related solutions: • Virus scanning and recovery based products • Hardware and software test and diagnostic tools • OS and utilities based deployment

  11. Windows PE Overview • An NTFS-capable boot disk with • TCP/IP networking • Mass-storage controller support • VESA mode video support • What is it used for? • Deployment • Recovery • Troubleshooting • Originally designed to provide cross-architecture deployment platform

  12. Windows PE Overview Release history • First release was concurrent with Windows XP in 2001 • Windows XP Service Pack 1: • Standalone DFS root connectivity • New (easier) boot from HDD ability • Windows Server 2003 • Ability to build Windows PE from Windows Server 2003 products • Windows XP Service Pack 2 release called WinPE2004 • WMI • Firewall • Driver injection • Updated with Windows Server 2003 Service Pack 1 • USB Boot • Any PXE Server Boot

  13. Features • Works with all systems that Windows XP and Windows Server 2003 support • Can be built from Windows XP or Windows Server 2003 • Device support: • Networking* • Mass-storage* • VESA video support (single driver) *Includes all built in drivers for this class from the version of Windows it was built from. New drivers of this class can be easily added.

  14. Features • VESA support specified by display controller hardware determines resultant color depth and resolution • Can connect to standalone DFS roots and other SMB shares • Ability to build-out storage, partition, do native FAT or NTFS disk formatting, 32-bit disk imaging, I/O

  15. Features Boot support • CD • DVD (ISO only) • Hard disk • PXE (RIS only for WinPE 2004) Supported for deploying • Windows 2000 • Windows XP • Windows Server 2003

  16. Non-Features • Windows Explorer shell • Audio support • DirectX • Visual Studio .NET applications • ADSI connectivity

  17. Uses For WinPE • Deployment (broadest use today) • Maintenance/repair/recovery • Other utilities ISVs use; • Anti-virus • Diagnostics • File-system repair tools

  18. Non-Uses For WinPE • Embedded operating system • Reboots every 24 hours • Use Windows XP Embedded • General use operating system • No Explorer Shell • No IE • Limited Application Support

  19. Building WinPE • mkimg.cmd • Creates directory structure for CD • If required manually tailor the platform • Drivers, utilities • Optionally customize the default scripts • startnet.cmd • Optionally create custom shell • C/C++ • Windows Script Host* • HTA (HTML Applications)* *Support can be added using buildoptionalcomponents.vbs

  20. Building WinPE continued • OSCDimg.exe • Creates ISO CD image of your directory • El-torito bootable • Same tool to create supported custom CD

  21. Demo • Using Setup Manager to build answer files • WinPE and Diskpart.exe

  22. New Licensing Model The new licensing model enables 3 options: • Ability to use Windows PE in-house for tools development, testing, and OS deployment (free) • IHV/OEM ability to develop support related test and diagnostic tools and ship these BIOS-locked to their hardware (free) • IHV/ISV/SI/OEM/ODM ability to create support related products (Virus scan, test and diagnostic, recovery etc) and ship these tools in a retail setting for a profit. (pay royalty when ship) • licwinpe@microsoft.com for all queries

  23. Scenario - Scripted Scenario: Deploying new systems, using scripted installation – Windows PE launched via RIS • New system arrives and is sent to employee • Machine is powered on and PXE boots • Boots to Windows PE • Disks are partitioned and formatted using diskpart and format • Winnt32 is launched with a custom unattend • Exit Windows PE when that completes • Install applications when setup completes

  24. Scenario - Scripted Task examples: DISKPART • Clean SEL DIS 0 CLEAN • Partition Creation SEL DIS 0 CRE PAR PRI ACTIVE ASSIGN LETTER=C EXIT

  25. Scenario - Scripted Task examples: • Format /Q /Y /FS:NTFS • Winnt32 syntax Winnt32 /syspart:C: /tempdrive:C: /makelocalsource /dudisable /unattend:unattend.txt

  26. Scenario – Imaging (SMS OSD?) Scenario: Migrating to XP, using USMT and Windows PE (with imaging tools) • USMT migrates files and settings off system • CD of Windows PE provided to employee • Machine is powered on and CD boots • Boots to Windows PE • Imaging tool used to apply image from UNC • Exit Windows PE when that completes • USMT migrates files and settings back

  27. Building An OS Image • Clean install OS • Ensure same HAL type (ACPI, non-ACPI) • Customize installation • Install applications • Prepare for management infrastructure • Generally handled by domain • User State Migration • Group Policy

  28. Building An OS Image (cont.) • Run Sysprep.exe • -reseal for end-user boot experience • -factory for customizing on reboot • Create “image” • 3rd party imaging tools • Boot to Windows PE and xcopy to server • Maintain “image” • Edit Sysprep.inf on image • Add files, drivers

  29. Problems with Previous WinPE • No support for WMI • No support for retrieving SMBIOS info • Can only PXE boot from RIS • CD swapping is complicated (/INRAM) • If Windows PE boots from hard-disk that disk cannot be repartitioned/reformatted

  30. Windows PE 2004 New Features Targeted Windows PE specific changes include: • Ability to inject 32/64 bit device drivers easily into Windows PE (Windows XP and Windows Server 2003 drivers) • WMI support for hardware based diagnostic tool access • Built in firewall support enabled by default • Build scripts documented to reduce the size of Windows PE • Boot Windows PE in a RAMDisk via PXE, from Hard disk or CD • Full support for all architectures Windows supports

  31. Add Device Drivers • Change build scripts to support additional hardware device classes and drivers in base Windows PE image • Provide ability to add additional 32 drivers outside of “in-box” drivers to existing build of Windows PE using drvinst.cmd • Add drivers after Windows PE image is built for test and diagnostic of the latest hardware/drivers avoiding full rebuilds

  32. DRVINST.CMD • Source Options • [/inf] – path to specific driver • [/oscd] – path to OS CD • Filter Options • [/onlyid] – only install with matching PNP IDs • [/ignoreid] - do not install these PNP IDs • [/onlyclass] – only install this class of driver • [/ignoreclass] – ignore these classes of driver • Action Options • [/inject] – specifies path to WinPE image (c:\winpe) • [/preview] – list drivers that would be installed

  33. WMI Support • Add WMI base support to provide access to underlying hardware within Windows PE • Support for over 40+ providers and 1500+ classes. • Leverage the ability to load a native driver for hardware validation and query

  34. RAMDisk Boot • Ability to boot, load and run Windows PE within a RAMDisk on a PC via network (any PXE server), hard disk, or CD • Provides ability to run tests and diagnostics remotely from the server or on local media • Allows for CD swapping for deployment/recovery media

  35. Windows PE New Features - Summary • Windows XP Service Pack 2 • WMI Support w/ 47 providers and 1500 classesEnables IP addresses to be changed on the fly after the WinPE CD has booted. • Driver Injection and PnP support • Windows Firewall support • Set IP for multiple NICs, rather than just first NIC enumerated

  36. Windows PE New Features - Future • Windows Server 2003 Service Pack 1 • All features listed for XPSP2 plus • Major Overhaul release; lots of bug fixes • Documentation getting a major clean up • RAMDisk boot support for HD, CD and any vendors PXE* • Full support for all architectures Windows Server 2003 Service Pack 1 will support • MKIMG -- No longer need to maintain separate build directories with ia64/amd64/x86 tools.  Correct tools pulled from platform-specific build directories, allowing same modified build scripts across architectures to be used. • ADO -- support named-pipe as well as TCPIP transport *Requires minimum of 256MB

  37. Installing Windows XP from Source • Windows XP • Copy i386 folder from XP CD ROM • Windows XP SP2 • Run XPSP2.EXE /S:d:\winxp(see support\tools\spdeploy.htm) (see support\tools\deploy.cab for GREAT info) • Let SUS/WU add the rest

  38. Distribution Share/Folder Explanation • What do the various directory structures in a Build source look like? • Below contains installation files - Windows XP, device drivers, any additional files • Structure ($OEM$ can be moved in unattend.txt) \i386 Windows XP files \$OEM$ Contains all OEM files \Textmode Contains Txtsetup.oem, SCSI and HAL files Maps to %systemroot% \$$ \$1 Maps to %systemdrive%. \<drivers_dir> Contains PnP drivers and infs \<drive_letter> Maps to a drive on the computer. E.g. E:\ \<drive_letter>

  39. Customising the Build • $OEM$ copies files to local disk • Cmdlines.txt executes commands at the end of setup • Cmdlines.txt is run synchronously • Commands in cmdlines.txt execute asynchronously • Use start /wait to call a CMD file • Use start /wait for each command in the CMD file • Cmdlines.txt has no user environment and no network access – useful only for $OEM$ • Cmdlines.txt cannot install MSI packages • Use GUIRunOnce • Use GUIRunOnce for network app installs

  40. Adding support for PnP hardware • Drivers must be available during GUI mode setup • Place files in $OEM$\$1\Drivers – can make this a more detailed sub structure • Create sub-folders (audio, net, etc) or vendor specific • Unattend.txt • [Unattend] • OEMPnPDriversPath=“drivers\audio;drivers\net;drivers\etc” • Setup prepends %systemdrive% to each path

  41. Sysprep = System preparation tool • Prepares a reference system duplication • SMS OSD • 3rd party imaging tools • XCopy • Similar to RIPrep, used for RIS imaging • Requires relatively similar hardware • Runs Mini-Setup (or Windows Welcome in Windows XP) rather than full setup

  42. Sysprep 2.0 Enhancements • Support for longer OEMPnPPath strings • Increased to 4096 characters • Administrator profile copied to Default User • Simplifies Default User configuration • Factory switch • Allows for updated or out of box drivers to be picked up by image at install time when PnP occurs • Winbom.ini Allows gathering of files (e.g., drivers, apps) from network or custom scripting/application installs • -PnP switch not recommended

  43. Sysprep How it works 1 Reference Computer is prepared as desired – Windows and applications File Server Reference Computer 2 Sysprep is run on the Computer, which then powers off 3 3 Using Windows PE or an imaging tool, the image is stored (here, to a server) 4 Destination Computer is booted using Windows PE or an imaging tool, image is installed. 4 5 Destination Computer is powered on, mini-setup runs 6 Destination Computer is powered off & ready to redistribute Destination Computer 7 Steps 4-6 repeated as needed for each new Computer desired

  44. Sysprep Components • Sysprep.exe • Main tool • Setupcl.exe • used to regenerate security IDs • Factory.exe • When sysprep is run with the –factory option • Sysprep.inf • Answer file used by Sysprep • Files must be in %systemdrive%\Sysprep folder

  45. Unattend And Setup Manager • Setup Manager creates and modifies unattended setup answer files • Unattend • Sysprep • RISetup • Can be found with other deployment tools and guides in Deploy.cab on the product CD • Updated versions of tools with XP SP1 and XP SP2

  46. Unattend And Setup Manager Enhancements • Local admin password can be encrypted • Setup Manager features Improved user interface • Improved .chm file on the product CD for unattended setup and deployment

  47. Remote Installation Services RIS • Remote Installation Service • Allows for network initiated setup • Clean scripted install (RISetup) • Clean imaged install (RIPrep) • Uses PXE network cards to initiate setup with minimal user interaction • Boot floppy supports select additional network cards that are not PXE capable

  48. RIS How it works Client DHCP Server 1 The client requests an IP address 2 The IP address is supplied by a DHCP server 1 3 The client contacts the RIS server 2 3 4 6 The RIS server checks Active Directory to see if the client has been pre-staged 5 RIS responds or forwards the request to another RIS server 5 6 The RIS server sends startrom.com to the client – launches OSChoice 4 RIS Server Active Directory DC

  49. RIS Windows 2003 Enhancements • Support for deploying • All retail versions of Windows 2000 (including Server and Advanced Server) • Windows XP Professional • All Windows Server 2003 products • All 64-bit versions of Windows Server 2003* • Significant performance increase over RIS in Windows 2000 *RISetup only, not RIPrep-based images

  50. Ristndrd.sif RIS RIS Setup RiPrep.sif Mini Setup or Windows Welcome RIS Installation RiPrep