Review Question Is it possible for a male cat to be a tortoiseshell?
X chromosome: Autosome Balance In Drosophila, sex is determined by the ratio of the number of X chromosomes to the number of sets of autosomes
Other kinds of sex determination • Grasshoppers, crickets, roaches: XO • Nematodes: ______ • Bees, ants, wasps: haplodiploidy • Many Snakes: _______ • Lizards: both XX/XY and ZZ/ZW systems • Crocodiles, most turtles, and some lizards, sex is determined by the incubation temperature during a critical period of embryo development. This is known as ____________________________.
In some animals, sex is not ‘determined’ at all! Some fish change sex as they get older or larger. In clown fish, largest group member is ______, second largest is _______, and all others are ______________. Sometimes the largest fish in the group will become ______, all others will be ______ (wrasses).
Coral Goby Gobiodon histrio Monogamous pairs If mate dies or leaves, resident will____________ _______________ _______________.
Cnemidophorusuniparens are all female; reproduce via _________________. Diploid or triploid eggs develop directly from oocytes (___________________), no cellular/nuclear division. At meiosis, identical rather than homologous chromosomes pair, and then segregate. All offspring are females and ____________________ __________________________________. Cnemidophorus species tend to have extremely low levels of genetic diversity. And some species are all female
Hermaphrodite flowers Hermaphrodite and male flowers on the same plant Male and Female flowers on the same plant Male and Female flowers on different plants Plants
Genomic Imprinting Differential expression of alleles at a locus depending on whether the allele has been inherited from the mother or the father.
Disease can result from imprinting Paternal SNRPN gene active-- paternally imprinted (chrom. 15) Maternal SNRPN Gene inactive by imprinting Paternal SNRPN Gene inactive by mutation Fertilization Mild retardation Compulsive eating Obesity Diabetes Prader-Willi Syndrome Both copies inactive
A nearby gene (also on chrom. 15) is maternally imprinted • A mutation in this gene results in Angelman Syndrome: mild retardation, seizures, and involuntary muscle contractions. • Which parent is the mutant allele inherited from in Angelman’s Syndrome?