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DCO11611 Flight Operations

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  1. DCO11611Aviation Operations

  2. Dr. Joseph Chanemail: dcjcchan@cityu.edu.hkhttp://personal.cityu.edu.hk/~dcjcchanOffice: P6821 Main Campus Phone: 2788-8207

  3. Consultation Hours (at Telford):Monday: 3:30 – 4:30 pmTuesday: 2:30 – 3:30 pmDuring these hours you can call me at phone: 2707-9086and I can meet you at the counter

  4. AssessmentsFinal Exam: 70%Course Work: 30% Mid-term Quiz Lab Exercises

  5. What is this Course About? • The basic structures and functions of airplane components • The aerodynamics of flying • Equipments of a modern plane • Navigation and communications processes • Flight regulations and laws • Meteorology that affects safe flying • Human physiology and psychology that affects safe flying • Similar to Private Pilot License (PPL) Exam

  6. Cathay Pacific Aircadets Training Program • Structures of airplanes • Aerodynamics • Principles of aviation wireless communication • Aviation Navigation • Aviation Meteorology • Principles of Aviation Planning • (Australian) Aviation Laws and Regulations • Aviation Physiology

  7. My academic background • BSc., M.Sc. and Ph.D. Candidacy in Physics • M.Engr. in Electrical and Computer Engineering • Ph.D. in Neuroscience (Physiological Psychology)

  8. Flight Training Programs in HK • Cathay Aircadets Training Program www.aircadets.org.hk/plttrg_e.html • Hong Kong Aviation Club http://www.hkaviationclub.com.hk/ • Dragonair http://www.dragonair.com/icms/servlet/template?series=59&lang=big5

  9. Textbooks for the course • Jeppesen. Private Pilot Manual. Sanderson Training Products. (Manual for PPL License Exam, but expensive ~ U.S. $80). • Kroes and Rardon. Aircraft Basic Science (7th ed.). McGraw-Hill International Edition. 1993. (Good for the fundamental principles)

  10. Lecture 1 Jeppesen. Chapters 1, 2

  11. Human efforts to try to fly – Milestones (1) • 1783 First manned flight in history – hot air balloon rose near Paris • 1881 Two German brothers “flew” with a heavier-than-air machine – glider from a hill • 1903 Wright brothers achieved the first powered, sustained and controlled airplane flight in U.S. • 1927 First trans-continental flight – from New York to Paris – in 33 hours, 30 minutes and 29.8 seconds • 1932 First woman to pilot an airplane solo across the Atlantic Ocean

  12. Human efforts to try to fly – Milestones (2) • 1939 First turbojet in the world in Germany • 1942 First turbojet in the U.S. • 1947 First super-sonic flight – 700 mph at 42,000 feet • 1961 First manned spaceship from Russia • 1969 First man on the moon • 1986 First non-stop-without-refueling flight around the world. Took 9 days, 3 minutes, and 44 seconds. The 7,011.5 pounds of fuel was 72.3% of the airplane’s gross weight • 2003 China’s first manned spaceship

  13. Basic components of airplane • All planes basically have the same structural components • Fuselage • Wings • Power plant • Landing gear • Empennage

  14. Basic components of airplane

  15. Basic Components of Airplane

  16. The fuselage • Cockpit – control of the plane • Cabin – contains seats of passengers • Room for cargo • Attachment points for other major airplane components • Fuselage in early planes used open truss structure. Modern planes uses stressed skin, known as • monocogue – no supporting truss, for light planes • semi-monocoque - has truss members for support

  17. The fuselage – Fig 2-3 Open Truss

  18. The fuselage – Fig 2-4 Semi-monocoque

  19. The Wings • When air flows around the wings of a plane it generates a lifting force • Wing are designed to maximize this lift • Monoplanes have one set of wings. Biplanes have two sets. Fig 2-4 • Monoplanes’ wings can be attached to the top of the fuselage (high-wing), to the middle (mid-wing), or the lower portion (low-wing).

  20. Monoplane and Biplanes Fig 2-4

  21. The Wings • Attached to the rear edge of each wing are two types of control surfaces called aileron and flap respectfully • Ailerons extend from about the mid-point of the wings to near the tips. • Ailerons of the two wings moves up and down in opposite directions to create aerodynamic forces that cause the plane to turn. • When the wheel is turned left the left aileron moves up and the right moves down. The plane then turns left.

  22. The Wings • The flap extends from the side of the fuselage to about the mid-point of each wing. • In normal flight the flap is parallel to the surface of the wing’s surface. • The flaps move simultaneously downwards to increase the lifting force of the wings during takeoffs and landing. • Flaps are controlled by a switch or a handle in the cockpit.

  23. The Empennage • The empennage is the tail of the plane. It consists of the horizontal stabilizer and the vertical stabilizer, (the vertical stabilizer is also referred to as thefin). • These two stabilizers help the plane to maintain a straight path through the air • The empennage also consists of the rudder which is attached to the back of the vertical stabilizer • Also, an elevator is attached to the back of the horizontal stabilizer (Fig 2-7)

  24. The Empennage Fig 2-7

  25. The Empennage - Rudder • The rudder helps to move the nose of the plane to left or right • It is used together with the ailerons to turn the plane • The rudder is controlled by the pilot’s feet with pedals. The left pedal moves the rudder to the left and helps turn the plane to the left. The right pedal turns the plane to the right.

  26. The Empennage - Elevator • An elevator is attached to the back of the horizontal stabilizer • The elevator is used to move the plane’s nose up and down during flight, directing the plane to go higher or lower • The elevator is controlled by the wheel. When the pilot pulls the wheel back, the elevator and the nose move up. When the pilot pushes the wheel down, the elevator and the nose move down.

  27. The Empennage - Stabilator • Some planes combine the horizontal stabilizer and the elevators into one piece called the stabilator. • The stabilator is hinged up and down at a center point. • When the control wheel is pulled back, the stabilator and the nose move up. When the wheel is pushed down, the stabilator and the nose move down.

  28. The Empennage – Trim Devices • Some planes use small pieces of surfaces attached to the control surfaces mentioned above. These are generally called trim devices. (Fig 2-10) • Trim devices exploit aerodynamic force of the air to adjust the workload needed to move the other control surfaces or to maintain those surfaces at a desired position.

  29. Trim Devices Fig 2-10

  30. The Empennage – Trim Devices • An example of trim devices is the trim tab which is attached at the tail edge of the elevator and is commonly used in many training planes. It lessens the air resistance the pilot feels when moving the elevator. • Another example is the trim used in a stabilator to provide more resistant feel so that the control feels more like that of an elevator.

  31. Landing Gear • The landing gear absorbs the shock upon landing and supports the plane on the ground. • Typically the landing gear consists of three wheels – two main wheels on either side of the fuselage, and a third wheel either at the front or at the rear. Landing gear using a rear wheel is called a conventional landing gear and a plane using conventional landing gear is called a tailwheel airplane. (Fig 2-11)

  32. Tailwheel airplane 2-11

  33. Landing Gear - Nosewheel • When the third wheel is located at the front it is called a nosewheel. Most modern plane uses this design. (Fig 2-12) • Nosewheels are either steerable or castering. • Steerable nosewheels are connected to the rudder through cables and rods while castering nosewheels are not.

  34. Nosewheel airplane 2-12

  35. Landing Gear - nosewheels • The pilot steers the plane using the rudder pedals in both types of nosewheels. • If the nosewheel is of the steerable type, pushing the left rudder forward will turn that wheel to the left, thus turning the plane left while taxiing • If the nosewheel is of the castering type the pilot may have to combine the use of the rudder pedals with independent use of the brakes (pushing the rudder downwards) on the main wheels, particularly on tight turns.

  36. Landing Gear – Fixed or Retractable • Landing gears can be classified as either fixed or retractable depending whether the landing gear can be retracted or not. • Fixed gear always remains extended. • The advantage is simplicity and low cost. • The disadvantage is having more air resistance. • Retractable gear is designed to streamline the airplane to reduce friction. • The disadvantage is increased weight and cost. It is normally used only in high performance planes.

  37. Landing Gear – Water Operation • Long time ago, before runways were available, planes took off and descended over water. • Nowadays many landplanes are still fitted with twin floats that support them on water for use in remote areas where runways or even long strip of land are not available. These type of airplanes are referred to as seaplanes.

  38. Landing Gear – Water Operation • Some airplanes can be operated both on land and on sea, and are called an amphibian. • Amphibian planes have the fuselage designed like a boat, with floats attached to the wings to increase support during water operations. They use retractable wheels for land operations.

  39. Landing Gear Struts • The wheels are attached to the fuselage through struts, which reduce the sudden shocks during landing or taxiing on rough grounds. • Spring steel and bungee struts do not actually absorb shocks but reduce their suddenness. (Fig. 2-14) • Most planes nowadays use oleo struts which are true shock absorbers. • An oleo strut uses a piston enclosed in a cylinder with oil and compressed air to absorb the shock. (Fig. 2-15)

  40. Struts – spring steel & bungee (2-14)

  41. Struts – Oleo absorber (2-15)

  42. Brakes • Typical training planes use disc brakes on the main wheels • Equal pressure can be applied to the two brakes simultaneously by pressing (downwards) equally on the top of each rudder pedal, in order to slow down the plane in a straight line. • The brakes can also be applied to varying degrees independent of each other. This would help steer the plane during ground operation. This technique is called differential braking.

  43. The Powerplant • In small planes the powerplant consists of the engine and the propeller. • The engine provides the power to turn the propeller, which in turn, provides the thrust to move the plane through the air. • The engine is enclosed by a cowling, which, in addition to provide streamlining for the nose, helps cool the engine by ducting outside air around the engine cylinders. (Fig. 2-18)

  44. A cowling (opening) is seen behind the propeller (2-18)

  45. POH, AFM, and PIM • Most of the pertinent information about a particular plane in contained by the Pilot’s Operation Handbook (POH) provided by the plane’s manufacturer. The format of POH for all planes are standardized. • The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) requires that all planes built after March 1, 1979 be equipped with an FAA approved airplane flight manual (AFM) which is specifically assigned to the individual airplane. • The FAA requires that the AFM for each plane be accessible by the pilot all the time when operating that plane.

  46. POH, AFM, and PIM • To compile with the FAA’s requirement manufacturers then write their POH just like the AFM. • The POH/AFM has to stay with the plane all the time during operation and is therefore not available to others to review for a lengthy period of time. As a result the manufacturer also publish a pilot’s information manual (PIM). • The PIM contains the same information as the POH/AFM except for precise weight and balance data and optional equipment specific to the particular plane.

  47. Contents of AFM – 10 Sections • General – basic information & terminology • Limitations – includes operating limitations • Emergency procedures • Normal procedures • Performance • Weight and balance • Airplane and system description • Handling, Service and maintenance • Supplements • Safety and operational tips

  48. Summary • An airplane generally contains the following: • Fuselage • Wings • Empennage • Landing gear • Powerplant • Airplane flight manual (AFM)