A mole cricket. After Eisenbeis Wichard 1987. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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A mole cricket. After Eisenbeis Wichard 1987. PowerPoint Presentation
A mole cricket. After Eisenbeis Wichard 1987.

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A mole cricket. After Eisenbeis Wichard 1987.

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  1. A mole cricket. (After Eisenbeis & Wichard 1987.)

  2. Figure 9.1 Diagrammatic view of a soil profile showing some typical litter and soil insects and other hexapods. Note that organisms living on the soil surface and in litter have longer legs than those found deeper in the ground. Organisms occurring deep in the soil usually are legless or have reduced legs; they are unpigmented and often blind. The organisms depicted are: (1) worker of a wood ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae); (2) springtail (Collembola: Isotomidae); (3) ground beetle (Coleoptera: Carabidae); (4) rove beetle (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae) eating a springtail; (5) larva of a crane fly (Diptera: Tipulidae); (6) japygid dipluran (Diplura: Japygidae) attacking a smaller campodeid dipluran; (7) pupa of a ground beetle (Coleoptera: Carabidae); (8) bristletail (Archaeognatha: Machilidae); (9) female earwig (Dermaptera: Labiduridae) tending her eggs; (10) wireworm, larva of a tenebrionid beetle (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae); (11) larva of a robber fly (Diptera: Asilidae); (12) larva of a soldier fly (Diptera: Stratiomyidae); (13) springtail (Collembola: Isotomidae); (14) larva of a weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae); (15) larva of a muscid fly (Diptera: Muscidae); (16) proturan (Protura: Sinentomidae); (17) springtail (Collembola: Isotomidae); (18) larva of a March fly (Diptera: Bibionidae); (19) larva of a scarab beetle (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae). (Individual organisms after various sources, especially Eisenbeis & Wichard 1987.)

  3. Figure 9.2 Fossorial fore legs of: (a) a mole cricket of Gryllotalpa (Orthoptera: Gryllotalpidae); (b) a nymphal periodical cicada of Magicicada (Hemiptera: Cicadidae); and (c) a scarab beetle of Canthon (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae). ((a) After Frost 1959; (b) after Snodgrass 1967; (c) after Richards & Davies 1977.)

  4. Box 9.1

  5. Box 9.2

  6. Figure 9.3 A plume-shaped tunnel excavated by the bark beetle Scolytus unispinosus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) showing eggs at the ends of a number of galleries; enlargement shows an adult beetle. (After Deyrup 1981.)

  7. Figure 9.4 Underside of the thorax of the beetle Henoticus serratus (Coleoptera: Cryptophagidae) showing the depressions, called mycangia, which the beetle uses to transport fungal material that inoculates new substrate on recently burnt wood. (After drawing by Göran Sahlén in Wikars 1997.)

  8. Figure 9.5 A pair of dung beetles of Onthophagus gazella (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) filling in the tunnels that they have excavated below a dung pad. The inset shows an individual dung ball within which beetle development takes place: (a) egg; (b) larva, which feeds on the dung; (c) pupa; and (d) adult just prior to emergence. (After Waterhouse 1974.)

  9. Figure 9.6 The fungus gardens of the leaf-cutter ant, Atta cephalotes (Formicidae), require a constant supply of leaves. (a) A medium-sized worker, called a media, cuts a leaf with its serrated mandibles while a minor worker guards the media from a parasitic phorid fly (Apocephalus) that lays its eggs on living ants. (b) A guarding minor hitchhikes on a leaf fragment carried by a media. (After Eibl-Eibesfeldt & Eibl-Eibesfeldt 1967.)