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Word Building Rules

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  1. CHAPTER 1 Word Building Rules

  2. Word Building Rules • Success depends on: • Learning word parts • Learning rules for combining word parts

  3. Word Root • Basic foundation of a word • Component parts are added to change meaning • Example word: cardiologist • cardi (word root) = heart • Words with cardi will always refer to the heart

  4. Combining Form • Word root + vowel = combining form • Vowel is called a combining vowel • Usually an o – occasionally an i • Combining vowels join word parts appropriately

  5. Combining Vowels: Rule • When using more than one word root – as in compound word • Combining vowel is needed to separate the different word roots • Usually done whether or not second or third word root begins with a vowel

  6. Combining Vowels: Rule • Example word: myoelectric • Breakdown of word: my/o/electr/ic • Root = my • Combining vowel = o • Root = electr • Suffix = ic • Note: root + vowel = combining form • my + o = my/o

  7. Combining Vowels: Rule • A word cannot end in a combining form • Drop the combining vowel • Add a suffix • Makes the word a noun or an adjective

  8. Combining Vowels: Rule • Example word: megalocardia • Breakdown of word: megal/o/card/ia • Root = megal • Combining vowel = o • Root = card • Suffix = ia • Note: Word cannot be megal/o/card/o • Must drop combining vowel o • Must add ending

  9. Suffix • Attaches to the end of the word root • Makes a word a noun or an adjective • Meaning of suffix remains the same • Suffix changes meaning of root to which it is attached

  10. Suffix: Rule • If suffix begins with a vowel (a,e,i,o,u,y) • Root will attach directly to it • If suffix begins with a consonant • Root will need a combining vowel before attaching to the suffix

  11. Suffix: Rule • Example word: cardiogram • Breakdown of word: cardi/o/gram • Root = cardi • Combining vowel = o • Suffix = gram • Note: Suffix begins with a consonant Combining vowel is needed

  12. Suffix: Rule • Example word: cardialgia • Breakdown of word: cardi/algia • Root = cardi • Suffix = algia • Note: Suffix begins with a vowel • Combining vowel is not needed

  13. Prefix • Attaches to the beginning of a word • Meaning of prefix always remains the same • Prefix changes meaning of root to which it is attached • Not all words have prefixes

  14. Prefix: Rule • Example word: endocardium • Breakdown of word: endo/cardi/um • Prefix = endo • Root = cardi • Suffix = um • Prefix attaches directly to beginning of word • Note: Combining vowel is not needed

  15. Word Structure • Review • Prefix is placed at beginning of word • Suffix is placed at end of word root • Combining forms are used when word has more than one word root = compound word

  16. Word Structure • Review • Compound words are usually composed in the following order: • Combining form + word root + suffix • Example: • Leuk + o + cyt + osis • (Combining form) + word root + suffix

  17. Word Structure • Review • Defining a medical term: • Define suffix first • Read from right to left and define each word element • Example: carditis • Suffix = itis = inflammation • Word root = card = heart • Definition = inflammation of the heart

  18. Word Structure • Review • Medical words with prefixes • Define suffix first, prefix second, word roots last

  19. Word Structure • Example: intracardiac • Suffix = ac = pertaining to • Prefix = intra = within • Word root = cardi = heart • Definition = pertaining to within the heart

  20. Word Structure • Review • When medical words identify body systems or parts • Define suffix first, body organs in order they are studied in body system

  21. Word Structure • Example: cardiopulmonary • Suffix = ary = pertaining to • Body organ = cardi = heart • Body organ = pulmon = lungs • Definition = pertaining to the heart and the lungs

  22. Pronunciation Guidelines • Pronunciation of medical word • May be exactly like it sounds • Example: febrile = ‘f’ sound, begins with ‘f’ • May begin with a letter, or letters that produces the same phonetic sound • Example: physiology = ‘f’ sound, begins with ‘ph’

  23. Pronunciation Guidelines • If it sounds like ‘f’ • Look for ‘f’ = febrile • Look for ‘ph’ = physiology • If it sounds like ‘j’ • Look for ‘j’ = jejunum • Look for ‘ge’ = genesis • Look for ‘gi’ = gingivitis • Look for ‘gy’ = gyrus

  24. Pronunciation Guidelines • If it sounds like ‘k’ • Look for ‘k’ = kyphosis • Look for ‘c’ = cornea • Look for ‘ch’ = chorion • Look for ‘qu’ = quadruplet • If it sounds like ‘n’ • Look for ‘n’ = neonatal • Look for ‘pn’ = pneumonia • Look for ‘kn’ = knee

  25. Pronunciation Guidelines • If it sounds like ‘s’ • Look for ‘s’ = sarcoma • Look for ‘c’ = cervix • Look for ‘ps’ = psychology • If it sounds like ‘sk’ • Look for ‘sk’ = skeleton • Look for ‘sc’ = sclera • Look for ‘sch’ = schizophrenia

  26. Pronunciation Guidelines • If it sounds like ‘z’ • Look for ‘z’ = zygomatic • Look for ‘x’ = xanthoma

  27. Additional Pronunciation Rules • Words that begin with ‘c’ • If followed by‘e’, ‘i’, or ‘y’ • Pronounced as soft ‘c’ • Has ‘j’ sound • Examples • ‘ce’ = cervix • ‘ci’ = circumduction • ‘cy’ = cyst

  28. Additional Pronunciation Rules • Words that begin with ‘c’ • If followed by ‘a’, ‘o’, ‘u’, or consonant • Pronounced as hard ‘c’ • Has a ‘k’ sound • Examples • ‘ca’ = cancer • ‘co’ = collagen • ‘cu’ = cuticle • ‘ch’ = cheiloplasty

  29. Additional Pronunciation Rules • Word roots that end in ‘g’ • If followed by ‘e’ or ‘i’ • Pronounced as soft ‘g’ • Sounds like ‘j’ • Examples • Laryng / ectomy • Pharyng / itis

  30. Additional Pronunciation Rules • Word roots that end in ‘g’ • If followed by ‘a’, ‘o’, or consonant • Pronounced as hard ‘g’ • Has ‘guh’ sound • Examples • Laryng / algia • Mening / ocele • Glossal

  31. Possessive Forms • Some diseases are named after individuals • Pronounced and written in possessive forms • Eponym (EP-oh-nim) • Name for a disease, organ, procedure, or body function • Derived from the name of a person