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Nickel Base Alloys

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  1. Nickel Base Alloys

  2. Resistance Welding • Learning Activities • View Slides; • Read Notes, • Listen to lecture • Do on-line workbook • Lesson Objectives • When you finish this lesson you will understand: Keywords

  3. Fe (9.7) AWS Welding Handbook

  4. Nickel Base Alloys Can Be Divided into Categories • Commercially Pure Nickel • Solid-Solution Alloys • Precipitation-Hardenable Alloys • Dispersion-Strengthened Alloys (ThO2) • Ni-Ti Shape Memory Alloys

  5. Decker, R., Strengthening Mechanisms in Nickel- Base Superalloys, International Nickel, 1970

  6. AWS Welding Handbook

  7. SS ppt pure disp Pure Fe = 9.7 Note Variation AWS Welding Handbook

  8. Pure Nickel - Alloy 200 • Food processing equipment • Caustic handling equipment • Chemical Shipping drums • Electrical & electronic parts • Susceptible to graphitization at grain boundaries at elevated temperatures. Alloy 201 • Used for service above 600F because: • Has low carbon which promotes increased resistance to graphitization at elevated temps

  9. Solid Solution • Nickel - Copper (400, R-405) • Resistance to Sea Water, chlorination • Naval Application, Chlorination Plants, Water meter parts, pump shafts, feed water heaters • Nickel-Chromium (600, 601, 690, 214, 230, G-30, RS-330) • Corrosion Resistance at Elevated Temp • Furnace muffles, heat treating equipment, nuclear steam tubing, heat exchangers, aircraft engine components • Nickel-Iron-Chromium (800, 800HT, 825, 20Cb3, N-155, 556) • High Temp Strength, Resistance to Oxidation • Heat exchangers, carborizing fixtures, pickling tank heaters, spent nuclear fuel element recovery, hydrofluoric acid production

  10. Solid Solution • Nickel-Molybdenum (B, B-2, N, W) • Low temp corrosion resistance, some acids • Cryogenic Service • Nickel-Chromium-Molybdenum (C-22, C-276, G, S, X, 622, 625, 686) • Corrosion resistance at room temp • Cobalt-Chromium-Nickel-Tungsten (L-605, 188, S-816, 54Co-26Cr) • Sensitive to Copper contamination

  11. Precipitation-Hardenable Alloys Gamma Prime Precipitate • Nickel-Copper Alloys (K-500) • Resistant to Sea Water, Chlorine • Pump shafts, impellers, oil well drill collars, electronic components, springs • Sensitive to strain age cracking • Nickel-Chromium (713C, X-750, U-500, R-41, Waspalloy) • Al-Ti-Nb strengthening • Good high temp oxidation • Gas turbine components • Nickel-Iron-Chromium (901, X-750) • Forging applications • generally not welded

  12. Relative Weldability of PPt Alloys AWS Welding Handbook

  13. Thorium Dispersion Strengthened Nickel • TD Nickel • High Temperature Strength • Thermal Shock Resistance – Used for Turbine components • TD NiCr • High Temperature Strength • Oxidation and Sulfidation Resistance Can have considerable loss of strength in weld, due to agglomeration or growth of thoria dispersoid. Fansteel Metals Division Bulletin,

  14. Ni-Ti Shape Memory Alloy • 55Ni- Bal Ti • Reversible Martensite Potluri, N. “Joining of Shape Memory Alloys” Welding Journal, March 1999

  15. Spot Welding Because of wide variations in properties Exact welding conditions vary widely • Electrical Resistance Range from 9.5 to over 130 micro-Ohm Cm • (1-13 times that of Plain Carbon Steels) • Welding Current similar to steel for low resistance • Current lower for higher resistance alloys • Short Weld Time • Because of short time, generally no atmosphere required • Strength Range from 0.8 to 3.8 times Plain Carbon Steel • For Lower Strength Materials • Same Force Levels • For High Strength (at Elevated Temp) • Higher Forces • a. Expulsion = Force too low • b. Electrode Mushroom = Force too high

  16. Spot Welding 5-8” For heavier material 0.06-0.125” For thin material up to 0.06” If tip sticking go to 10o Resistance Welding Manual, RWMA

  17. AWS Welding handbook

  18. Spot Welding Thicker Gage 73Ni-16Cr-7Fe-3Ti Resistance Welder Manufacturers Association Bulletin # 26

  19. Spot Welding Thicker Gage 73Ni-16Cr-7Fe-3Ti Thickness Resistance Welder Manufacturers Association Bulletin # 26

  20. Spot Welding Frequency Converter AWS Welding handbook

  21. Spot Weld Defects • Hot Cracking • lower S&P • forge force • Coring • higher R in GB • Constitutional Liquation • Reduce particles in HAZ • Sulfur HAZ Surface Cracking • Oil, Grease, Marking Pencil on Surface Resistance Welding Manual, RWMA

  22. Projection Welding Seldom Projection Welded because Production Runs are usually small Higher Weld Forces and longer weld times required than for Plain Carbon Steel because of higher elevated Temperature Strength

  23. Cross Wire Welding Resistance Welding Manual, RWMA

  24. Seam Welding Intermittent Pulse, Intermittent Roll, Forge Force Possible No Intermittent Roll, No Forge Possible Roll Spot Weld Upper Electrode Wheel Knurl or Friction Drive Wheel Overlapping Seam Weld Class 1 or 2 Rolls Burnished to Prevent Sticking Continuous Seam Weld Workpiece Throat [Reference: Welding Handbook, Volume 2, p.553, AWS] Lower Electrode Wheel

  25. Seam Welding

  26. Flash Welding Higher upset force because of higher hot strength than plain carbon steel Higher Clamping Forces because higher upset forces Die burn = Insufficient Clamping Force Resistance Welding Manual, RWMA

  27. Flash Welding Jaw spacing less because higher resistance Higher resistance may cause some centerline melting High flashing speeds (parabolic vs. linear) and shorter flashing times used to minimize weld contamination. Upset distance sufficient to get all molten material out Resistance Welding Manual, RWMA

  28. Flash Welding Current Flow During Upset If flashing current is cut off before upset, oxide forms at centerline Resistance Welding Manual, RWMA

  29. Welding Handbook, AWS

  30. Some Applications

  31. Resistance welding Electrode to Spark Plug Nickel (typically Inconel 600) Sheath Copper Core Electrode Weld to Steel Plug Body Chiu, R, “Spark Plug with Copper Cored Ground Electrode and a Process of Welding the Electrode to a Spark Plug Shell” US Patent 5,530,313 Jan 25, 1996

  32. Welding of a current collector in a Ni-Cd Coil Wound Battery Ni Separator Cd Nickel strip (3&4) resistance spot welded to nickel plated steel collector plate (7&8) Nakamaru, H, et al, “Cylindrical Storage Battery” US Patent 6,013,389 Jan 11, 2000

  33. Method For Replacing Blade Tip of Directionally Solidified and Single Crystal Blades (Tips to prevent leakage of Compressed Air Between Blade and Shroud) Resistance Weld Rene N5 (single Crystal) Rene 142 Dir. Solidified Air Holes Blade Cross Section Bewlay, B, et al “Method for Replacing Blade Tips of Directionally Solidified and Single Crystal Turbine Blades”, US Patent 5,822,852 Oct 20, 1998

  34. Homework