Information contained in an NMRspectrum includes: 1. number of signals 2. their intensity (as measured by area under peak) 3. splitting pattern (multiplicity)
Number of Signals protons that have different chemical shifts are chemically nonequivalent exist in different molecular environment
N CCH2OCH3 10.0 9.0 8.0 7.0 6.0 5.0 4.0 3.0 2.0 1.0 0 Figure 13.11 (page 533) OCH3 NCCH2O Chemical shift (, ppm)
Chemically equivalent protons are in identical environments have same chemical shift replacement test: replacement by some arbitrary "test group" generates same compound H3CCH2CH3 chemically equivalent
Chemically equivalent protons Replacing protons at C-1 and C-3 gives same compound (1-chloropropane) C-1 and C-3 protons are chemically equivalent and have the same chemical shift ClCH2CH2CH3 CH3CH2CH2Cl H3CCH2CH3 chemically equivalent
Br H C C H3C H Diastereotopic protons replacement by some arbitrary test group generates diastereomers diastereotopic protons can have differentchemical shifts 5.3 ppm 5.5 ppm
Enantiotopic protons are in mirror-image environments replacement by some arbitrary test group generates enantiomers enantiotopic protons have the samechemical shift
H H C CH2OH H3C H Cl Cl H C C CH2OH CH2OH H3C H3C Enantiotopicprotons R S
13.7Spin-Spin SplittinginNMR Spectroscopy not all peaks are singlets signals can be split by coupling of nuclear spins
10.0 9.0 8.0 7.0 6.0 5.0 4.0 3.0 2.0 1.0 0 Cl2CHCH3 Figure 13.12 (page 562) 4 lines; quartet 2 lines; doublet CH3 CH Chemical shift (, ppm)
C C C C Two-bond and three-bond coupling H H H H protons separated bytwo bonds(geminal relationship) protons separated bythree bonds(vicinal relationship)
C C C C Two-bond and three-bond coupling H in order to observe splitting, protons cannot have same chemical shift coupling constant (2J or 3J) is independent of field strength H H H
10.0 9.0 8.0 7.0 6.0 5.0 4.0 3.0 2.0 1.0 0 Cl2CHCH3 Figure 13.12 (page 562) 4 lines; quartet 2 lines; doublet coupled protons are vicinal (three-bond coupling) CH splits CH3 into a doublet CH3 splits CH into a quartet CH3 CH Chemical shift (, ppm)
H Cl H H C C H Cl Why do the methyl protons of1,1-dichloroethane appear as a doublet? To explain the splitting of the protons at C-2, we first focus on the two possible spin orientations of the proton at C-1 signal for methyl protons is split into a doublet
H Cl H H C C H Cl Why do the methyl protons of1,1-dichloroethane appear as a doublet? There are two orientations of the nuclear spin for the proton at C-1. One orientation shields the protons at C-2; the other deshields the C-2 protons. signal for methyl protons is split into a doublet
H Cl H H C C H Cl Why do the methyl protons of1,1-dichloroethane appear as a doublet? The protons at C-2 "feel" the effect of both the applied magnetic field and the local field resulting from the spin of the C-1 proton. signal for methyl protons is split into a doublet
H Cl H H C C H Cl this line correspondsto molecules in which the nuclear spin of the proton at C-1 reinforcesthe applied field this line correspondsto molecules in which the nuclear spin of the proton at C-1 opposesthe applied field Why do the methyl protons of1,1-dichloroethane appear as a doublet? "true" chemicalshift of methylprotons (no coupling)
H Cl H H C C H Cl Why does the methine proton of1,1-dichloroethane appear as a quartet? The proton at C-1 "feels" the effect of the applied magnetic field and the local fields resulting from the spin states of the three methyl protons. The possible combinations are shown on the next slide. signal for methine proton is split into a quartet
H Cl H H C C H Cl Why does the methine proton of1,1-dichloroethane appear as a quartet? There are eight combinations of nuclear spins for the three methyl protons. These 8 combinations split the signal into a 1:3:3:1 quartet.
The splitting rule for 1H NMR For simple cases, the multiplicity of a signalfor a particular proton is equal to the number of equivalent vicinal protons + 1. N+1 rule where N = # of equivalent vicinal protons.
13.8Splitting Patterns:The Ethyl Group CH3CH2X is characterized by a triplet-quartet pattern (quartet at lower field than the triplet)
10.0 9.0 8.0 7.0 6.0 5.0 4.0 3.0 2.0 1.0 0 BrCH2CH3 Figure 13.15 (page 564) 4 lines; quartet 3 lines; triplet CH3 CH2 Chemical shift (, ppm)
Table 13.2 (page 565) Number of equivalent Appearance Intensities of linesprotons to which H of multiplet in multipletis coupled 1 Doublet 1:1 2 Triplet 1:2:1 3 Quartet 1:3:3:1 4 Pentet 1:4:6:4:1 5 Sextet 1:5:10:10:5:1 6 Septet 1:6:15:20:15:6:1 Splitting Patterns of Common Multiplets
13.9Splitting Patterns:The Isopropyl Group (CH3)2CHX is characterized by a doublet-septet pattern (septet at lower field than the doublet)
10.0 9.0 8.0 7.0 6.0 5.0 4.0 3.0 2.0 1.0 0 BrCH(CH3)2 Figure 13.17 (page 566) 2 lines; doublet 7 lines; septet CH3 CH Chemical shift (, ppm)
13.10Splitting Patterns:Pairs of Doublets Splitting patterns are not always symmetrical, but lean in one direction or the other.
C C Pairs of Doublets Consider coupling between two vicinal protons. If the protons have different chemical shifts, each will split the signal of the other into a doublet. H H
C C Pairs of Doublets Let be the difference in chemical shift in Hz between the two hydrogens. Let J be the coupling constant between them in Hz. H H
H H C C J J AX When is much larger than J the signal for each proton is a doublet, the doublet is symmetrical, and the spin system is called AX.
H H C C J J AM As /J decreases the signal for each proton remains a doublet, but becomes skewed. The outer lines decrease while the inner lines increase, causing the doublets to "lean" toward each other.
H H C C J J AB When and J are similar, the spin system is called AB. Skewing is quite pronounced. It is easy to mistake an AB system of two doublets for a quartet.
H H C C A2 When = 0, the two protons have the same chemical shift and don't split each other. A single line is observed. The two doublets have collapsed to a singlet.
H H OCH3 Cl H H 10.0 9.0 8.0 7.0 6.0 5.0 4.0 3.0 2.0 1.0 0 Figure 13.19 (page 567) skewed doublets OCH3 Chemical shift (, ppm)
13.11Complex Splitting Patterns Multiplets of multiplets
H H H O2N m-Nitrostyrene Consider the proton shown in red. It is unequally coupled to the protons shown in blue and white. Jcis = 12 Hz; Jtrans = 16 Hz
H H H O2N 16 Hz m-Nitrostyrene The signal for the proton shown in red appears as a doublet of doublets. 12 Hz 12 Hz
H H H O2N Figure 13.20 (page 568) doublet doublet doublet of doublets
Coupling of White H H H H O2N J (vicinal) >> J (geminal)
13.121H NMR Spectra of Alcohols What about H bonded to O?
H H C O O—H The chemical shift for O—H is variable ( 0.5-5 ppm) and depends on temperature and concentration. Splitting of the O—H proton is sometimes observed, but often is not. It usually appears as a broad peak. Adding D2O converts O—H to O—D. The O—H peak disappears.
NMR is "slow" Most conformational changes occur faster than NMR can detect them. An NMR spectrum is the weighted average of the conformations. For example: Cyclohexane gives a single peak for its H atoms in NMR. Half of the time a single proton is axial and half of the time it is equatorial. The observed chemical shift is half way between the axial chemical shift and the equatorial chemical shift.