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Firecracker Displays Safety

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  1. Firework Displays & Safety Dave White Tony Wilkinson

  2. Just common sense innit? • Assessing Risk • Regulations • Knowledge of the subject • “Morbid Imagination” Before we move on…

  3. Lack of common sense!

  4. Today’s Topics • Regulations etc. • Black Powder (gunpowder) • Deflagration • Firework Types • Estimating Risk • Planning an event • Firing a show • Demonstrations

  5. Regulations etc.Categories of Firework (BS7114) • Category 1 ("indoor") • fireworks are for use in extremely restricted areas. • Category 2 ("garden") • fireworks are for use by the public in their gardens. Safely viewable from 5m, no debris beyond 3m. •  Category 3 ("display") • fireworks are for use by the public in larger displays. Safely viewable from 25m, no debris beyond 20m. • Category 4 ("professional") • for sale only to fireworks professionals. They have few restrictions, default category for untested fireworks

  6. Regulations etc.UN Hazardous Materials – Class 1 • 1.1 Mass Explosion Hazard • 1.2 Nonmass explosion, fragment-producing • 1.3 Mass fire, minor blast or fragment hazard • 1.4 Moderate fire, no blast or fragment: a consumer firework is 1.4G or 1.4S • 1.5 Explosive substance, very insensitive (with a mass explosion hazard) • 1.6 Explosive article, extremely insensitive

  7. Regulations etc.Firework Categories & Classes • Consumer Fireworks • Usually Cat.3 • 1.4G • Display Fireworks • Usually Cat.4 • Mostly 1.3G • Large shells now 1.1G • (ADR)

  8. Black Powder (Gunpowder)Introduction Used for: • Propellant (small grain – e.g. Gun) • Propellant (large grain – e.g. Rocket) • Explosive (burst charge) • Fuses, delays etc.

  9. Black PowderSolid Grain SOLID GRAIN LIQUID GAS FLAME

  10. Black Powder Grain Burn

  11. Black Powder Deflagration

  12. Black Powder Confinement

  13. Black Powder Confinement Failure! 3,000 C 50,000psi

  14. “Flash” • Perchlorate and atomised Aluminium • Loud reports • “Hard Break” shells and rockets • High Brisance • ‘explodes’ with little confinement • >10g = 1.1G

  15. Some types of Firework

  16. Firework: RocketConstruction Stars (with burst charge) BP Grain Nozzle Balance stick Launch tube

  17. Firework: RocketFailure modes Cracked Rocket Motor

  18. Firework: RocketFailure modes “Groundburst” Also… Failure to fly

  19. wind Firework: RocketEffect of wind “CofG” wind Angling away from wind – make it worse!

  20. Fireworks: Gerbs“Fountains” Kimbolton 7lb Gerb “Fountain with sparks” Solid or compressed grain

  21. Fireworks: Cakes“Multi-shot Battery” Crackle Red Explosive (flash) Red Flare (delay) Propellant (BP) Fuse

  22. Fireworks: Cakes“Multi-shot Battery”

  23. Fireworks: Candles“Roman Candle” Fuse Felt wad Delay • Multi-shot • 19mm – 65mm + • Sidewall can fail • Stake, Board or Box

  24. Fireworks: ShellsIntroduction • 3” , 4” and 5” • (75,100,125mm) • 6” and up 1.1G

  25. Fireworks: ShellsConstruction 50m+ burst ~100m/sec ~300mph!

  26. Rack Failure ! Fireworks: ShellsFailure Modes • No Lift (or zero delay) • “Flowerpot” • “detonation” • Poor Lift • Low Break (going up) • Long or failed delay • Low Break (coming down) • “Black Shell” Causes: Malfunction, Jam, Loading error

  27. Fireworks: ShellsCalculating Distances • Rule of thumb: • 25m + 10m per shell inch • Other Variables: • Mortar angle • Wind speed & direction • Shell spin • Mortar type (esp. steel) • Note: • Normal safety distances do NOT account for disrupted racks 4” Shell

  28. Fireworks: ShellsCalculating Distances 4” Shell – 100m burst diameter, burst at 6m, 230m from launch Mortar fallen to 75 degrees from vertical

  29. Fireworks: Fuse & Igniters • PIC Green / Brown • WASAG • Pipe Match (“green”) • Electric matches (“dets”)

  30. PPE • Clothing • Hard Hat • Eye protection • Ear protection (or not) • Gloves (or not) Don’t forget: Torch and Several lighters!

  31. A Firework ShowPlanning the Event • Site Visits • Safety Distances • Roads, Buildings, Airports • Responsibilities • Event Organiser • Marshalling requirements • Notification: Police, Fire, CAA (and any other affected parties) • Budget etc. • Method Statement • Risk Assessment

  32. A Firework ShowPlanning the Display • Check material (if possible) • Firing Order • Equipment Requirements • Racks, boxes, boards etc. • Material Preparation • Fusing • Waterproofing • Transport • ADR

  33. A Firework ShowSite Setup Drop Zone • Event Organiser • Safety Distances • Wind Direction • Perimeters and Marshalling • Layout in firing order • Site fusing / wiring Shells Large Cakes Candles Small Cakes Set Pieces Audience

  34. A Firework ShowSite Setup Driffield Showground – 24th June 2006

  35. A Firework ShowSite Setup Hull University Union – May 2004

  36. A Firework ShowFiring the Display • Firing Order • “Gaffer” • Walk-thru • Decision to fire • Keep lookout • Check for ‘duds’ • Clearing Up

  37. www.dti.gov.uk/fireworks/ www.hse.gov.uk www.eig.org.uk www.bpa-fmg.org.uk More Information: • Training courses Lots of links at Fireworks magazine site: www.fireworks.co.uk www.kimboltonfireworks.co.uk www.fantasticfireworks.biz

  38. Outdoor Demonstrations • Example equipment • Types of fuse • Black Powder and confinement • Fire Fighting