SOUTH AFRICA’S SUSTAINABLE TOURISM DEVELOPMENT MODELBroad Based Black Economic Empowerment 4th IIPT African Conference Peace through Tourism 21st May 2007 Kampala, Uganda Dr Tanya Abrahamse South Africa
Before 1994 No sharing of small cake • Tourism used as sanctions busting • Totally white owned, managed and large part employed • Petty apartheid – restaurants, parks, hotels – no black customers • Animals, landscapes – Norway in the sun!! • Globally- Tourism fastest growing economic sector • The greatest job creator in the world • SA – huge HDI differential, high unemployment, skills level problem • Reconstruction & Development Programme (RDP)
Responsible Tourism Policy 1996 • Weave in an RDP approach • Responsible – Environment, local communities, employers and employees • Seeds for sustainability • Supported by Constitution (Human Rights) • And an array of legislation – NEMA, Labour Acts, Skills Act, etc • Hindsight – did not tackle key legacy of racial inequality
By 2000 Some success contributed to transformation • Re-branding – unique African destination • Infrastructure investment & SMME support • FairTrade and other NGO (small drop) • Growth of the economy and emerging black middle class with expendable income • Shó’t Left Campaign focus on new home market segments • 10 fold growth in international visitors BUT STILL NOT TRANSFORMED TBCSA and Voluntary Charter – the beginning of frank discussion and broad agreement from the private sector
2003 and the BBBEE Act • Broad based on 7 levels/areas • Ownership, Participation in management, Employment, Skills commitment, Procurement, Enterprise development and CSR • Voluntary compliance access to government & parastatal procurement • Knock on effect – eg Banking sector • Charter – commitment • Scorecard – the nuts and bolts on compliance
SA Tourism sector & BBBEE • Makes business sense • One of first, consultative and broadly supported • By 2005 done and dusted • Result - huge capital flow, tapping on new talents, perspectives and energies • Breaking ‘old boy’s network’ and new exciting ways to do business • Increased competitiveness in procurement, eg • Tourism BBBEE Charter Council – monitors progress
Sustainability – a complex process Path to sustainability multi pronged & indicators of success shifts • Confidence and ‘buy in’ of local people – on the ground & the middle classes too – BBBEE aim • Access to & understanding markets - .travel & what is a tourist? – breaking stereotypes, improving perceptions • Private sector organised and involved • Public/private institutions with clear mandates and roles • Openess, Frankness, Respect, Equity & clarity of goals • Communication – the good, the bad & for the long haul • Fix the indirect issues - not only for tourists (public transport, provision of housing and water, crime etc)
Sustainability = Stake in the industry = Peace & Stability • Good, clear rules & stable environment to do business • Well run businesses (pay tax) – large, medium & small • Quality jobs underpinned by skills development • Competition in procurement to lift standards • Stable markets (domestic & international) TOURISM EVERYBODY’S BUSINESS TO OWN, EMPLOY, SERVICE AND ENJOY !!!