The Service Encounter Triad Service Organization Efficiency versus autonomy Efficiency versus satisfaction Customer Contact Personnel Perceived control
More Repeat Purchases More Familiarity with Customer Needs andWays of Meeting Them Stronger Tendency to Complain about Service Errors Greater Opportunity for Recovery from Errors Higher Employee Satisfaction Higher Productivity Lower Costs Better Results Improved Quality of Service Satisfaction Mirror Higher Customer Satisfaction
The Cycle of Capability • Careful employee and customer selection • High-quality training • Well-designed support systems • Greater latitude to meet customer’s needs • Clear limits on expectations of employees • Appropriate rewards and recognition • Satisfied employees • Employee referrals of job candidates
Service Profit Chain Internal External Service concept Operating strategy and service delivery system Target market Loyalty Revenue growth Customers Satisfaction Productivity & Output quality Service value Employees Satisfaction Loyalty Capability Profitability Service quality Workplace design Job design / decision-making latitude Selection and development Rewards and recognition Information and communication Adequate “tools” to serve customers Quality & productivity improvements yield higher service quality and lower cost Attractive Value Service designed & delivered to meet targeted customers’ needs Lifetime value Retention Repeat Business Referral
Through the Looking Glass: An Agency Theoretic Foundation for the Satisfaction Mirror Ellis, R. S. Gudergan, S. P. and Johnson, L. W. (2001), Journal of Consumer Satisfaction, Dissatisfaction and complaining behavior, 14, pp. 121-124.
Outline • Abstract • Introduction • Agency Theory and the Customer-Staff Dyad • Moral Hazard • Imperfect Information and Asymmetry • A Second Dyad • Propositions • Implications
Abstract • Authors identify the front-line service provider as being the agent in two separate but related principal-agent dyads: the first with the customer, the second with the employing organization. • The role in two simultaneous dyads, with on conditional on the other, both provides direction fro strengthening the satisfaction mirror and also places upper limits on its potential strength.
Introduction(1) • “Satisfaction mirror” as a strong positive relationship between customer satisfaction and staff job satisfaction within the service environment. • Wile the satisfaction mirror is intuitively appealing – the idea that a customer’s satisfaction of the front-line service provider, and vice versa – a theoretical analysis of the underlying mechanics of the mirror has not been undertaken.
Introduction(2) • In this paper, the authors utilize agency theoretic concepts to understand underlying driving forces that can shape and limit the satisfaction mirror. • Additionally, the authors apply agency theory to develop testable propositions regarding the mirror.
Agency Theory and the Customer-Staff Dyad (1) • The customer (principal) requires the service provider (agent) to perform some service on the customer’s behalf – the classical principal agent problem.
Agency Theory and the Customer-Staff Dyad (2) • The customer expects from the service provider a specific outcome to the customer’s service requirement, said outcome to be the service resolution: • If there is a problem, the customer expects it to be fixed; if there is an opportunity, the customer expects it to be taken.
Moral Hazard(1) • The problem of moral hazard arises when the customer believes that adequate delivery by the service provider is uncertain because of possible lack of effort and therefore that working with the service provider is risky. • While optimal levels of satisfaction for both the customer and service provider cannot therefore be simultaneously achieved, the opportunity still exists for efficiency gains – or increases in satisfaction – to be achieved by one or both parties.
Imperfect Information and Asymmetry(1) • Context-specific imperfect information results because the customer alone has intimate knowledge of the environment in which the need for service was originally identified as well as the symptoms that are necessary for service task diagnosis, and yet it is the service provider who requires that information.
Imperfect Information and Asymmetry(2) • Here, the design of the implicit or explicit arrangement will determine the overall level of front-line service provider satisfaction with the customer relationship.
A Second Dyad • The service provider is also involved in a second dyad, this one with the organization that employs the individual. As with the staff-customer dyad, the two parties in the staff-organization dyad are presumed to be efficiency maximizers.
Propositions(1) • Proposition 1: A greater customer satisfaction focus in the contract the organization has with each service-providing staff member will strengthen the satisfaction mirror. • Proposition 2: The more risk-averse a frontline service staff member, the weaker the positive effect on the satisfaction mirror of a customer-satisfaction-focused [i.e., outcome-based] contract between staff member and organization.
Propositions(2) • Proposition 3: A greater customer service focus [i.e., behavior basis] in the contract the organization has with each risk-averse service-providing staff member will strengthen the satisfaction mirror. • Proposition 4: Given a behavior-based customer-service-focused contract between organization and staff member, the greater the member of outcomes the organization desires from the staff member, the weaker the satisfaction mirror will be.