Effective Instructional Models to Scaffold Learning Joyce VanTassel-Baska, Ed.D. Jody and Layton Smith Professor in Education Executive Director, Center for Gifted Education The College of William and Mary
Building Rigor in Advanced Curriculum • Start with an advanced curriculum base. • Use diagnostic assessments to calibrate actual student learning levels. • Employ task demands that require higher level thinking and problem-solving. • Provide feedback on performance. • Use assessment that is advanced.
Rigor cont. • Track progress on advanced skills. • Subgroup students by learning rate and progress on complex material. • Adjust the curriculum level upward as evidence suggests readiness for targeted learners. • Sustain growth in learning new content and skills.
Concept Development Model Reasoning Model Problem-Based Learning Hamburger Model Dagwood Model Vocabulary Web Literature Web Models
Literature Web Key Words Feelings READING Ideas Images/Symbols Structure
Wild Geese You do not have to be good. You do not have to walk on your knees for a hundred miles through the desert, repenting. You only have to let the soft animal of your body love what it loves. Tell me about despair, yours, and I will tell you mine. Meanwhile the world goes on. Meanwhile the sun and the clear pebbles of the rain are moving across the landscapes, over the prairies and the deep trees, the mountains and the rivers. Meanwhile the wild geese, high in the clean blue air, are heading home again. Whoever you are, no matter how lonely, the world offers itself to your imagination, calls to you like the wild geese, harsh and exciting – over and over announcing your place in the family of things. -- M. Oliver
Vocabulary Web Synonyms: Source (sentence where you saw the word): Definition: WORD: Antonyms: Example: Part of Speech: Analysis Word Families: Stems: Origin:
Hamburger Model for Persuasive Writing Introduction (State an opinion.) Elaboration Elaboration Elaboration Reason Reason Reason Elaboration Elaboration Elaboration Conclusion
Claim/Opinion/Introduction Details Details Background Reason Other Points of View Elaboration Elaboration Reason Other Points of View Elaboration Elaboration Reason Other Points of View Elaboration Elaboration Conclusion Dagwood Model
Issues in Teaching Thinking • Embedding in content • Use of multiple modes and types • Assessed by products
Purpose/ Goal Point of View Assumptions Evidence/ Data Issue/ Problem Inferences Concepts/ Ideas Implications/ Consequences Elements of Reasoning -- Paul, 1992
Question Tree based on Reasoning Model • What is the question or issue of interest? • What is the purpose of _____________? • What points of view or perspectives are important to • understanding __________________? • What assumptions underlie each perspective on ________? • What data/evidence support a given perspective on _____? • What inference can be made about ______________, based • on the evidence? • What are the implications and consequences of __________?
Reasoning Sample In mid-July, I called the county office that handles streetlights. I pointed out that low-growing tree branches in my neighborhood were obscuring a number of the streetlights. I further pointed out that some of the streets were nearly totally dark. The county informed me that trimming trees away from lights was not one of its duties and I was told to call Virginia Power. When I called Virginia Power, I was informed that trimming limbs away from streetlights was not its responsibility and I should call the county. I told the electricity company that the county had stated that Virginia Power was responsible for the work. I also informed the county that Virginia Power’s position is that the county must do the work. These two organizations are in no hurry to resolve this problem, for the limbs are growing longer as the streets grow darker. I can only hope that if you print this note, maybe I’ll get some action. -- from The Virginia Gazette, October 3, 1998
Reasoning about a Situation or Event What is the situation? Who are the stakeholders? What is the point of view for each stakeholder? What are the assumptions of each group? What are the implications of these views?
Examples of Concepts (used in W&M curriculum units) CHANGE SYSTEMS CAUSE AND EFFECT AUTHORITY PERSPECTIVE Concept Development Process Cite examples. Categorize. Cite non-examples. Generalize. Concept Development
Boundaries Elements Inputs Outputs Interactions Analyzing a System
Features of Problem-based Learning • Learner-centered • Real world problem • Teacher as tutor or coach • Emphasis on collaborative teams • Employs metacognition • Uses alternative assessment • Embodies scientific process.
Problem Statement (Tailored for Local Area) You are the supervisor of the day shift of the Virginia State Highway Patrol in Williamsburg, Virginia. It is 6:00 a.m. on a steamy June morning. You are awakened by the ringing phone. When you answer you are told, “Come to the Queen’s Creek overpass on eastbound Interstate 64. There has been a major accident and you are needed.” Quickly you dress and hurry to the overpass. As you approach the bridge, you see an overturned truck that is completely blocking both eastbound lanes of the freeway. You see “CORROSIVE” on small signs on the side and rear of the truck. The truck has lost at least one wheel and is resting on the freeway guard rail. There is a large gash in the side of the truck; from this gash, a clear liquid is running down the side of the truck, onto the road, and down the hill into Queen’s Creek. Steam is rising from the creek. All traffic has been halted and everyone has been told to remain in their cars. Many of the motorists in the traffic jam appear to be angry and frustrated. Police officers, firemen, and rescue squad workers are at the scene. They are all wearing coveralls and masks. The rescue squad is putting the unconscious truck driver onto a stretcher. Everyone seems hurried and anxious.
Meaningful Project Work • Advances content understanding • Teaches higher level skills of cognition and metacognition. • May be group or individual • Requires written and oral outcomes • May be short term or long term (1 week- 1 semester) • Is assessed by rating of skills employed and quality of product
Sample Task Demand Ask students to design an experiment to test a question of interest to them: • Examples: • Do people prefer Product X over Product Y? • Are ants attracted to sugar? • Are girls more addicted to computers than boys? • A research report must be prepared and presented, using technology applications. Be sure to address hypothesis, data collection techniques, appropriate data tables, conclusions, and implications of the findings based on the original question.
What is Positive Change? • Enhancing learning for students • Climate of excellence • Learning-centered students, parents, and teachers