Impacts of Multiple Stressors on Aquatic Communities in the Prairie Pothole Region - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Impacts of Multiple Stressors on Aquatic Communities in the Prairie Pothole Region

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  1. Effects of Multiple Stressors on Aquatic Communities in the Prairie Pothole Region Patrick K. Schoff and Lucinda B. Johnson Natural Resources Research Institute University of Minnesota Duluth Glenn Guntenspergen US Geological Survey Patuxent River, Maryland Carter Johnson South Dakota State University Brookings, South Dakota

  2. Amphibian Stressors pesticides UV exotics emerging diseases new parasites eutrophication pharmaceuticals desiccation acidification novel predators development / habitat fragmentation temperature

  3. Indicators of Ecosystems in Jeopardy population reductions Human epidemiology cancers asthma heart disease Emerging diseases of wildlife CWD BSE / vJCD AIDS SARS Ebola Avian Influenza West Nile Virus local extinctions Wildlife epidemiology Degraded Environment Emerging diseases in humans intersex parasites cancers malformation species extinction exotic / invasive species

  4. Prairie Pothole Region • Critical freshwater resource • habitat • - breeding waterfowl • - migration stopover • - macroinvertebrates • - amphibians • flood water storage

  5. Anthropogenic Stressors Affecting the Prairie Pothole Region • Climate change • increased temperature • decreased moisture • UV radiation • reduced DOC inputs (?) • Agricultural practices • excess nutrients • pesticides • Habitat restructuring/destruction • ~50% of wetlands drained in previous century • remaining wetlands embedded in agricultural matrix

  6. temperature precipitation UV-B radiation Stressor Effects on Amphibians Stressors Biological Effects { Global Climate Change accelerated development immune dysfunction species diversity (?) { physiological stress immune dysfunction disease susceptibility developmental anomalies habitat restructuring pesticides nutrients Agricultural Practices

  7. Objectives • Quantify relationships among differing land use, amphibian community structure and composition in the prairie pothole region. • hydroperiod (semi-permanent v. seasonal) • crop v. grassland • Quantify relationships among physical and chemical wetland attributes on amphibian organismal and community responses. • hydroperiod • thermal regime • pH

  8. Objectives, cont. 3. Quantify the effects of multiple stressors on health and organismal responses of Rana pipiens. • shortened hydroperiod • increased UV-B radiation 4. Predict potential effects of multiple stressors on prairie pothole wetlands and associated amphibian communities.

  9. Stressor Effects on Amphibians • Accelerated Hydroperiod(warmer, less water) • faster development • smaller metamorphs • reduced fat stores = reduced fitness • Increased UV-B radiation(ozone depletion, +/- reduced DOC) • edema • malformations • impaired immune function • mutagenic effects • Atrazine (most commonly used herbicide) • endocrine disruption (?) • - gonadal dysmorphogenesis (♂♀) • - laryngeal muscle reduction (♂) • developmental delays

  10. Approach Landscape scale (Extensive study) • relationships among amphibian community structure, land use, and wetland hydrologic regime Wetland scale (Intensive study) • relationships among individual wetlands (hydroperiod, physico-chemical), land uses (e.g. pesticides), UV-B, amphibian abundance, community structure, and health Mesocosm scale • effects of multiple stressors (hydroperiod and pesticide) on Rana pipiens development and health

  11. project organization

  12. Multiple Stressors Study • Extensive study: • Prairie Pothole Region • goal = 120 wetlands • (2004 = 63 wetlands) • 2004, 2005 2 hydroperiod categories: seasonal semi-permanent 2 use classes: row crop grazing/pasture • Intensive study: • Prairie Coteau ecoregion • goal = 60 wetlands • (2003 = 27 wetlands) • a portion under study in • an ongoing hydrological • research program • 2003 - 2005 • Mesocosm study: • 2003 pilot study • 2004 – 2005 full-scale

  13. Intensive Study Area Prairie Pothole Region

  14. Intensive Study (2003 – 2005) Category Parameter Wetland morphology size; configuration; depth profile; hydrologic regime Habitat vegetative cover maps; land use; distance to wetlands, fields, roads & structures Water column continuous temp; sp. conductance; pH; depth (weekly); spectral scans; UV attenuation; pesticide analysis (atrazine); chlorophyll-A Microclimate temperature; humidity; precipitation; cloud cover; wind speed Amphibian community calling surveys; VES surveys & trapping for amphibian larvae (biweekly)

  15. Wetland Temperatures - 2003 Temperature (oC) Wetland Types

  16. Water Loss in Wetlands - 2003 Proportion of sites containing water Week in 2003

  17. Metamorphs Captured – Week 10 Metamorphs collected Water depth (cm)

  18. Wetland pH - 2003 pH Wetland Types

  19. Wetland Conductivity - 2003 Conductivity (mS) Wetland Types

  20. Malformation Prevalence - 2003 % Malformed Wetland Types

  21. Survey • 27 wetlands • 7 dry • 8 with < 10 metamorphs captured (n = 14) • 12 with >10 metamorphs captured (n = 1475) • (avg. = 123; range = 22 - 155) Malformation prevalence: • metamorphs 1475 • malformed individuals 45 • prevalence range 0 – 7.8% • overall prevalence 3.1% • (Midwest study = 2.0%) Malformations - 2003

  22. Malformation Prevalence byWetland Type Wetland Category Wetlands Metas. Malfs. Prev. (%) Semi-permanent crop 1 132 2 1.5 Semi-permanent grassland 8 913 25 2.4 Seasonal crop 1 153 12 7.8 Seasonal grassland 2 277 6 2.2 Total 12 1475 45 3.1%

  23. DRY DRY 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 Extensive Study Blocks (2004) Miles

  24. Extensive Study (2004 – 2005) Category Parameter Wetland morphology size; configuration; depth profile; hydrologic regime Habitat vegetative cover maps; land use; distance to wetlands, fields, roads, & structures Water column temperature; pH; spectral scans; water color @ 440 nm Microclimate temperature; humidity; precipitation; cloud cover; wind speed Amphibian community calling surveys; VES surveys & trapping for amphibian larvae

  25. Mesocosm Scale Goal – replicate environmentally relevant multiple stressor exposure under controlled conditions: 1. accelerated hydroperiod 2. atrazine • Hydroperiod • 1. normal hydroperiod – drawdown tied to field conditions • 2. accelerated hydroperiod – drawdown at increased rate • Atrazine • 1. 0.1 mg/L – found by Hayes and others to cause • gonadal dysmophogenesis • 2. 20 mg/L – commonly found in ground and surface • water in corn-growing areas • 3. 200 mg/L – occasionally found in surface water

  26. Mesocosms - 2003 • “Pilot year” for mesocosms (late start limited options) • survival • density • temperature • feeding • atrazine exposure tests: • 1) control, no addition • 2) solvent (acetone) • 3) atrazine, 20 mg/L • 4) atrazine, 200 mg/L • Results: • limited development • no metamorphs • Interpretation: • suspect water source • late collection of tadpoles • long holding time in aquarium • high temperatures in mesocosms

  27. Mesocosms - 2004 • Modifications: • lake water • addition of shade cloth • insulated tubs with straw • successful early egg mass collection • limited holding time (larvae transferred at Gosner stage 20+)

  28. 9 treatment categories: 1. normal hydrology, no additions 2. accelerated hydrology, no additions 3. normal hydrology, solvent control (acetone) 4. normal hydrology, atrazine 0.1 mg/L 5. normal hydrology, atrazine 20 mg/L 6. normal hydrology, atrazine 200 mg/L 7. accelerated hydrology, atrazine 0.1 mg/L 8. accelerated hydrology, atrazine 20 mg/L 9. accelerated hydrology, atrazine 200 mg/L Mesocosms - 2004 Treatments (stressors): hydrology: normal or accelerated atrazine: 0, 0.1, 20,200 mg/L

  29. Modeling • Multi-basin wetland complex model based on WETSIM (Poiani et al. 1996) • Consists of interacting submodel components: surface water, groundwater, and vegetation. • Simulates changes in water level and vegetation cover for prairie wetland complexes that include 3 hydrologic classes: • semi-permanent, • seasonal, • temporary • HADCM3 climate scenarios will be used to parameterize model.

  30. T +3oC T +3oC Historic T +3oC P +20% P - 20% Modeling Climate Change Algona, IA Central Tall Grasslands Crookston, MN Northern Tall Grasslands Minot, ND Northern Mixed Grasslands Watertown, SD Prairie Coteau

  31. Modeling Climate Change

  32. Challenges • 1. Site availability and landowner cooperation. • farmer/rancher sensitivity to researchers • lack of “crop” wetland sites • 2. Who would do wetland research in a drought? • 3. UV monitoring in continually windy conditions. • 4. Availability of target frog (Rana pipiens) eggs for • mesocosms; variability due to local weather & short-term • climate conditions. • 5. Mesocosms: • frog survival • metamorph development

  33. This research has been supported by the U.S. EPA Science to Achieve Results (STAR) Multiple Stressors Initiative. RD-83087901-0

  34. Acknowledgments Dr. Catherine Johnson, National Forest Service Dr. Nels Troelstrup, South Dakota State University Jennifer Olker Milan Angela Rohweder Dena Shelley Katie Brown Deborah Endriss Chandler Schmutzer Denise Gregorie Janna Goldrup Sarah Syria Patti Kramer