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Code Improvement I: Machine Autonomous Advancements

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  1. Code Optimization I:Machine Independent Optimizations • Topics • Machine-Independent Optimizations • Code motion • Reduction in strength • Common subexpression sharing • Tuning • Identifying performance bottlenecks class26.ppt

  2. Great Reality #4 • There’s more to performance than asymptotic complexity • Constant factors matter too! • Easily see 10:1 performance range depending on how code is written • Must optimize at multiple levels: • algorithm, data representations, procedures, and loops • Must understand system to optimize performance • How programs are compiled and executed • How to measure program performance and identify bottlenecks • How to improve performance without destroying code modularity and generality

  3. Optimizing Compilers • Provide efficient mapping of program to machine • register allocation • code selection and ordering • eliminating minor inefficiencies • Don’t (usually) improve asymptotic efficiency • up to programmer to select best overall algorithm • big-O savings are (often) more important than constant factors • but constant factors also matter • Have difficulty overcoming “optimization blockers” • potential memory aliasing • potential procedure side-effects

  4. Limitations of Optimizing Compilers • Operate Under Fundamental Constraint • Must not cause any change in program behavior under any possible condition • Often prevents it from making optimizations when would only affect behavior under pathological conditions. • Behavior that may be obvious to the programmer can be obfuscated by languages and coding styles • e.g., data ranges may be more limited than variable types suggest • Most analysis is performed only within procedures • whole-program analysis is too expensive in most cases • Most analysis is based only on static information • compiler has difficulty anticipating run-time inputs • When in doubt, the compiler must be conservative

  5. Machine-Independent Optimizations • Optimizations you should do regardless of processor / compiler • Code Motion • Reduce frequency with which computation performed • If it will always produce same result • Especially moving code out of loop for (i = 0; i < n; i++) { int ni = n*i; for (j = 0; j < n; j++) a[ni + j] = b[j]; } for (i = 0; i < n; i++) for (j = 0; j < n; j++) a[n*i + j] = b[j];

  6. Compiler-Generated Code Motion • Most compilers do a good job with array code + simple loop structures • Code Generated by GCC for (i = 0; i < n; i++) { int ni = n*i; int *p = a+ni; for (j = 0; j < n; j++) *p++ = b[j]; } for (i = 0; i < n; i++) for (j = 0; j < n; j++) a[n*i + j] = b[j]; imull %ebx,%eax # i*n movl 8(%ebp),%edi # a leal (%edi,%eax,4),%edx # p = a+i*n (scaled by 4) # Inner Loop .L40: movl 12(%ebp),%edi # b movl (%edi,%ecx,4),%eax # b+j (scaled by 4) movl %eax,(%edx) # *p = b[j] addl $4,%edx # p++ (scaled by 4) incl %ecx # j++ jl .L40 # loop if j<n

  7. Reduction in Strength • Replace costly operation with simpler one • Shift, add instead of multiply or divide 16*x --> x << 4 • Utility machine dependent • Depends on cost of multiply or divide instruction • On Pentium II or III, integer multiply only requires 4 CPU cycles • Recognize sequence of products int ni = 0; for (i = 0; i < n; i++) { for (j = 0; j < n; j++) a[ni + j] = b[j]; ni += n; } for (i = 0; i < n; i++) for (j = 0; j < n; j++) a[n*i + j] = b[j];

  8. Make Use of Registers • Reading and writing registers much faster than reading/writing memory • Limitation • Compiler not always able to determine whether variable can be held in register • Possibility of Aliasing • See example later

  9. Machine-Independent Opts. (Cont.) • Share Common Subexpressions • Reuse portions of expressions • Compilers often not very sophisticated in exploiting arithmetic properties /* Sum neighbors of i,j */ up = val[(i-1)*n + j]; down = val[(i+1)*n + j]; left = val[i*n + j-1]; right = val[i*n + j+1]; sum = up + down + left + right; int inj = i*n + j; up = val[inj - n]; down = val[inj + n]; left = val[inj - 1]; right = val[inj + 1]; sum = up + down + left + right; 3 multiplications: i*n, (i–1)*n, (i+1)*n 1 multiplication: i*n leal -1(%edx),%ecx # i-1 imull %ebx,%ecx # (i-1)*n leal 1(%edx),%eax # i+1 imull %ebx,%eax # (i+1)*n imull %ebx,%edx # i*n

  10. length 0 1 2 length–1 data    Vector ADT • Procedures vec_ptr new_vec(int len) • Create vector of specified length int get_vec_element(vec_ptr v, int index, int *dest) • Retrieve vector element, store at *dest • Return 0 if out of bounds, 1 if successful int *get_vec_start(vec_ptr v) • Return pointer to start of vector data • Similar to array implementations in Pascal, ML, Java • E.g., always do bounds checking

  11. Optimization Example void combine1(vec_ptr v, int *dest) { int i; *dest = 0; for (i = 0; i < vec_length(v); i++) { int val; get_vec_element(v, i, &val); *dest += val; } } • Procedure • Compute sum of all elements of vector • Store result at destination location

  12. Time Scales • Absolute Time • Typically use nanoseconds • 10–9 seconds • Time scale of computer instructions • Clock Cycles • Most computers controlled by high frequency clock signal • Typical Range • 100 MHz • 108 cycles per second • Clock period = 10ns • 2 GHz • 2 X 109 cycles per second • Clock period = 0.5ns • Fish machines: 550 MHz (1.8 ns clock period)

  13. Cycles Per Element • Convenient way to express performance of program that operators on vectors or lists • Length = n • T = CPE*n + Overhead vsum1 Slope = 4.0 vsum2 Slope = 3.5

  14. Optimization Example void combine1(vec_ptr v, int *dest) { int i; *dest = 0; for (i = 0; i < vec_length(v); i++) { int val; get_vec_element(v, i, &val); *dest += val; } } • Procedure • Compute sum of all elements of integer vector • Store result at destination location • Vector data structure and operations defined via abstract data type • Pentium II/III Performance: Clock Cycles / Element • 42.06 (Compiled -g) 31.25 (Compiled -O2)

  15. Understanding Loop void combine1-goto(vec_ptr v, int *dest) { int i = 0; int val; *dest = 0; if (i >= vec_length(v)) goto done; loop: get_vec_element(v, i, &val); *dest += val; i++; if (i < vec_length(v)) goto loop done: } • Inefficiency • Procedure vec_length called every iteration • Even though result always the same 1 iteration

  16. Move vec_length Call Out of Loop void combine2(vec_ptr v, int *dest) { int i; int length = vec_length(v); *dest = 0; for (i = 0; i < length; i++) { int val; get_vec_element(v, i, &val); *dest += val; } } • Optimization • Move call to vec_length out of inner loop • Value does not change from one iteration to next • Code motion • CPE: 20.66 (Compiled -O2) • vec_length requires only constant time, but significant overhead

  17. Code Motion Example #2 • Procedure to Convert String to Lower Case • Extracted from 213 lab submissions, Fall, 1998 void lower(char *s) { int i; for (i = 0; i < strlen(s); i++) if (s[i] >= 'A' && s[i] <= 'Z') s[i] -= ('A' - 'a'); }

  18. Lower Case Conversion Performance • Time quadruples when double string length • Quadratic performance

  19. Convert Loop To Goto Form void lower(char *s) { int i = 0; if (i >= strlen(s)) goto done; loop: if (s[i] >= 'A' && s[i] <= 'Z') s[i] -= ('A' - 'a'); i++; if (i < strlen(s)) goto loop; done: } • strlen executed every iteration • strlen linear in length of string • Must scan string until finds '\0' • Overall performance is quadratic

  20. Improving Performance void lower(char *s) { int i; int len = strlen(s); for (i = 0; i < len; i++) if (s[i] >= 'A' && s[i] <= 'Z') s[i] -= ('A' - 'a'); } • Move call to strlen outside of loop • Since result does not change from one iteration to another • Form of code motion

  21. Lower Case Conversion Performance • Time doubles when double string length • Linear performance

  22. Optimization Blocker: Procedure Calls • Why couldn’t the compiler move vec_len or strlen out of the inner loop? • Procedure may have side effects • Alters global state each time called • Function may not return same value for given arguments • Depends on other parts of global state • Procedure lower could interact with strlen • Why doesn’t compiler look at code for vec_len or strlen? • Linker may overload with different version • Unless declared static • Interprocedural optimization is not used extensively due to cost • Warning: • Compiler treats procedure call as a black box • Weak optimizations in and around them

  23. Reduction in Strength void combine3(vec_ptr v, int *dest) { int i; int length = vec_length(v); int *data = get_vec_start(v); *dest = 0; for (i = 0; i < length; i++) { *dest += data[i]; } • Optimization • Avoid procedure call to retrieve each vector element • Get pointer to start of array before loop • Within loop just do pointer reference • Not as clean in terms of data abstraction • CPE: 6.00 (Compiled -O2) • Procedure calls are expensive! • Bounds checking is expensive

  24. Eliminate Unneeded Memory Refs void combine4(vec_ptr v, int *dest) { int i; int length = vec_length(v); int *data = get_vec_start(v); int sum = 0; for (i = 0; i < length; i++) sum += data[i]; *dest = sum; } • Optimization • Don’t need to store in destination until end • Local variable sum held in register • Avoids 1 memory read, 1 memory write per cycle • CPE: 2.00 (Compiled -O2) • Memory references are expensive!

  25. Detecting Unneeded Memory Refs. Combine3 Combine4 • Performance • Combine3 • 5 instructions in 6 clock cycles • addl must read and write memory • Combine4 • 4 instructions in 2 clock cycles .L18: movl (%ecx,%edx,4),%eax addl %eax,(%edi) incl %edx cmpl %esi,%edx jl .L18 .L24: addl (%eax,%edx,4),%ecx incl %edx cmpl %esi,%edx jl .L24

  26. Optimization Blocker: Memory Aliasing • Aliasing • Two different memory references specify single location • Example • v: [3, 2, 17] • combine3(v, get_vec_start(v)+2) --> ? • combine4(v, get_vec_start(v)+2) --> ? • Observations • Easy to have happen in C • Since allowed to do address arithmetic • Direct access to storage structures • Get in habit of introducing local variables • Accumulating within loops • Your way of telling compiler not to check for aliasing

  27. Machine-Independent Opt. Summary • Code Motion • Compilers are good at this for simple loop/array structures • Don’t do well in presence of procedure calls and memory aliasing • Reduction in Strength • Shift, add instead of multiply or divide • compilers are (generally) good at this • Exact trade-offs machine-dependent • Keep data in registers rather than memory • compilers are not good at this, since concerned with aliasing • Share Common Subexpressions • compilers have limited algebraic reasoning capabilities

  28. Important Tools • Measurement • Accurately compute time taken by code • Most modern machines have built in cycle counters • Using them to get reliable measurements is tricky • Profile procedure calling frequencies • Unix tool gprof • Observation • Generating assembly code • Lets you see what optimizations compiler can make • Understand capabilities/limitations of particular compiler

  29. Code Profiling Example • Task • Count word frequencies in text document • Produce sorted list of words from most frequent to least • Steps • Convert strings to lowercase • Apply hash function • Read words and insert into hash table • Mostly list operations • Maintain counter for each unique word • Sort results • Data Set • Collected works of Shakespeare • 946,596 total words, 26,596 unique • Initial implementation: 9.2 seconds • Shakespeare’s • most frequent words

  30. Code Profiling • Augment Executable Program with Timing Functions • Computes (approximate) amount of time spent in each function • Time computation method • Periodically (~ every 10ms) interrupt program • Determine what function is currently executing • Increment its timer by interval (e.g., 10ms) • Also maintains counter for each function indicating number of times called • Using gcc –O2 –pg prog. –o prog ./prog • Executes in normal fashion, but also generates file gmon.out gprof prog • Generates profile information based on gmon.out

  31. Profiling Results % cumulative self self total time seconds seconds calls ms/call ms/call name 86.60 8.21 8.21 1 8210.00 8210.00 sort_words 5.80 8.76 0.55 946596 0.00 0.00 lower1 4.75 9.21 0.45 946596 0.00 0.00 find_ele_rec 1.27 9.33 0.12 946596 0.00 0.00 h_add • Call Statistics • Number of calls and cumulative time for each function • Performance Limiter • Using inefficient sorting algorithm • Single call uses 87% of CPU time

  32. Code Optimizations • First step: Use more efficient sorting function • Library function qsort

  33. Further Optimizations • Iter first: Use iterative function to insert elements into linked list • Causes code to slow down • Iter last: Iterative function, places new entry at end of list • Tend to place most common words at front of list • Big table: Increase number of hash buckets • Better hash: Use more sophisticated hash function • Linear lower: Move strlen out of loop

  34. Profiling Observations • Benefits • Helps identify performance bottlenecks • Especially useful when have complex system with many components • Limitations • Only shows performance for data tested • E.g., linear lower did not show big gain, since words are short • Quadratic inefficiency could remain lurking in code • Timing mechanism fairly crude • Only works for programs that run for > 3 seconds