FTT 308 Prologue to Telecast News coverage - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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FTT 308 Prologue to Telecast News coverage

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  1. FTT 308 Introduction to Broadcast Journalism Gary Sieber

  2. Introduction • What is “News”?

  3. Introduction • What is “News”? • Dictionary says: • 1) New information about anything. • 2) Recent happenings. • 3) Reports of such events, collectively. • 4) A newspaper or broadcast news program.

  4. What Is News? • 8 determinants of newsworthiness: • Importance (to the greatest # of viewers)

  5. What Is News? • 8 determinants of newsworthiness: • Importance (to the greatest # of viewers) • Interest (regardless of importance)

  6. What Is News? • 8 determinants of newsworthiness: • Importance (to the greatest # of viewers) • Interest (regardless of importance) • Controversy

  7. What Is News? • 8 determinants of newsworthiness: • Importance (to the greatest # of viewers) • Interest (regardless of importance) • Controversy • The Unusual (“Man bites dog!”)

  8. What Is News? • 8 determinants of newsworthiness: • Importance (to the greatest # of viewers) • Interest (regardless of importance) • Controversy • The Unusual (“Man bites dog!”) • Timeliness

  9. What Is News? • 8 determinants of newsworthiness: • Importance (to the greatest # of viewers) • Interest (regardless of importance) • Controversy • The Unusual (“Man bites dog!”) • Timeliness • Proximity

  10. What Is News? • 8 determinants of newsworthiness: • Importance (to the greatest # of viewers) • Interest (regardless of importance) • Controversy • The Unusual (“Man bites dog!”) • Timeliness • Proximity • Celebrity

  11. What Is News? • 8 determinants of newsworthiness: • Importance (to the greatest # of viewers) • Interest (regardless of importance) • Controversy • The Unusual (“Man bites dog!”) • Timeliness • Proximity • Celebrity • Caught on Tape!

  12. Introduction • What is “News”? • Some alternative notions: • “News is what people talk about during coffee breaks.”

  13. Introduction • What is “News”? • Some alternative notions: • “News is what people talk about during coffee breaks.” • “News means carrying on and amplifying the conversation of people themselves.” – James Carey, Columbia University.

  14. Introduction • What is “News”? • Some alternative notions: • “News is what people talk about during coffee breaks.” • “News means carrying on and amplifying the conversation of people themselves.” – James Carey, Columbia University. • “News is more than a mere collection of facts -- News means telling stories.”

  15. NewsCenter 16 45.9% Prime 17.5% Access 8.8% Late Fringe 6.6% Daytime (9a-4p) 5.5% Today Show 4.6% Olympics 4.6% Early Fringe (4-5pm) 3.0% Sports 2.2% Infomercials 1.4% TOTAL 100% Fiscal Year % of Revenue

  16. News Revenue By Program • NewsCenter 16 @10/11pm(M-F) 24.4% • NewsCenter 16 Morning Show(M-F) 22.3% • NewsCenter 16 @ 6pm(M-F) 20.2% • NewsCenter 16 @ 5pm (M-F) 11.9% • NewsCenter 16 Saturday Morning 6.5% • NewsCenter 16 @ 10/11pm (Sat/Sun) 4.6% • NewsCenter 16 @ 5:30pm (M-F, Win.) 4.0% • NewsCenter 16 @ Noon (M-F) 2.5% • NewsCenter 16 Sunday Morning 1.8% • NewsCenter 16 @ 6pm (Sat/Sun) 1.7%

  17. Introduction • Differences among the Media (plural, not singular)

  18. Introduction • Differences among the Media (plural, not singular) • W. Phillips Davison -- Columbia University sociologist: • Radio: “The alerting medium.” Radio’s effectiveness comes from the immediacy of electronic communication.

  19. Introduction • Differences among the Media (plural, not singular) • W. Phillips Davison -- Columbia University sociologist: • Print (incl. Newspapers): “The informing medium.” Print has the unique ability to handle complexity and detail that the electronic media cannot. It also has the luxury of time to assemble coherent and meaningful analyses of events.

  20. Introduction • Differences among the Media (plural, not singular) • W. Phillips Davison -- Columbia University sociologist: • Television: “The involving medium.” Television engages the emotions of viewers in a way that no other medium can. It combines the effects of pictures, sound, narrative, and electronic immediacy.

  21. Newsroom Organization and Structure

  22. Newsroom Organization and Structure

  23. Newsroom Organization and Structure

  24. Newsroom Organization and Structure

  25. Newsroom Organization and Structure

  26. Newsroom Organization and Structure

  27. Newsroom Organization and Structure

  28. Typical TV Station Departments • Production • Promotion • Engineering • Sales • Programming • Accounting • Management

  29. 16 mm Film • Portability • Ease of maintenance • Softer “feel” • Splice-and-tape editing • Difficulty with archive re-edits • Audio popping • Non-reusable medium • No electronic output

  30. Function of Producer • No satellite coordination • No IFB communication • No concern about suitability of live material • Mostly stacking and timing • Not generally considered a management track position.

  31. Emergence of ENG and videotape • Originally very bulky - not very portable • Electronic output for liveshots • Ease of editing (electronic, not splicing) • Harder “feel” - sharper edges, clarity • CCD led to improved low-light images • No processing required • Reusable medium

  32. Electronic News Gathering (ENG) Microwave signal “line of sight”

  33. Electronic News Gathering (ENG)

  34. Satellite News Gathering(SNG) Speed of light = 186,000 mi./sec. 1/4 sec. delay between sender & receiver 22,300 miles (each way)

  35. Satellite News Gathering(SNG) • Geosynchronous Orbit S D D S x Earth

  36. Satellite News Gathering (SNG) • Transponder = “transmitter / responder” • multiple units on satellites that each receive, amplify, & retransmit telecommunications • Window = slot of transponder time reserved for use by purchaser • Uplink / Downlink • C-Band Ku-Band • “Bird” = “Satellite” (K2, Westar 3, etc.)

  37. “Being Told” vs. “Being There” Viet Nam War 2-3 Days Elapsed Event Message • Many Gatekeepers • Importance of Anchors • Time for Analysis & News Judgment • Loss of Immediacy Photog/Rept. L.A.- Developer Producer Editor Ex. Prod. N.Y. - News Dir. Producer Ex. Prod. Anchor Editor

  38. “Being Told” vs. “Being There” Iraq War Real Time - No Delay Event Message • No Gatekeepers / Filters • “Anticipation of News” - Not News Itself • Increased Importance of Correspondents • Participants Rather Than Observers • Immediate & Engaging, But Not Necessarily Informing. Photog/Rept.

  39. Writing for Broadcast Not as easy as it looks . . . Or sounds.

  40. Let’s Write a Haiku • Traditional Japanese poetry • 17 syllables total: 5-7-5 • Doesn’t have to rhyme • Usually has some reference to one of the seasons of the year (but doesn’t have to for our exercise).

  41. Haiku All that remains of those brave warriors' courage-these summer grasses • Basho Haiku Master

  42. Why Haiku? • It is similar to writing broadcast news copy: • Written on short deadline. • Can say a lot in a very short span of time. • Demands an economy of words (17 syllables!). • Leaves room for only the most important ideas. • Requires precision and accuracy. • Effectiveness depends on the sound of the words as well as the meaning. • Must be read out loud..

  43. Writing: Broadcast vs. Print • Print Broadcast

  44. Writing: Broadcast vs. Print • Print Broadcast • Information processed Information processed by the eye by the ear

  45. Writing: Broadcast vs. Print • Print Broadcast • Information processed Information processed by the eye by the ear • Limited space Limited time

  46. Writing: Broadcast vs. Print • Print Broadcast • Information processed Information processed by the eye by the ear • Limited space Limited time • Unlimited review One-pass-through medium

  47. Writing: Broadcast vs. Print • Print Broadcast • Information processed Information processed by the eye by the ear • Limited space Limited time • Unlimited review One-pass-through medium • Detailed/Formal Conversational

  48. Inverted Pyramid Most Important Lead sentence: Who, What, When, Where, Why, & How 5 W’s + H Least Important

  49. Writing for Broadcast • Economy of Words • Straight-line Meaning • Sounds Good • Passes the “So What?” Test • Familiar Terms • (Pneumonoultramicroscopicsilicovolcanoconiosis) Do Not “Write Down” to Your Audience!

  50. How Not to Writefor Broadcast The Elkhart County Parks Board today has a better idea what needs to be done to shore up the Goshen Dam. An engineer’s report recommends covering the rock-filled mesh gabions with a grout. The study also calls for working on the earthen bank between the dam and the mill race to retard erosion...