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Computerized Narrative Film Making

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  1. Digital Documentary Film Making Guy Mullins, Ken Fagan Arizona State University

  2. Objectives • Define Documentary Film • Styles of Documentaries • Video Production Process • Film Making Jobs & Duties • Discuss Orme Dam Research

  3. Communicating with Video • Drama • Instructional Video • News/Magazine format • News • Documentary • Research and Data Collection • Surveillance MORE SCRIPT LESS SCRIPT

  4. Documentary Film & Video • “Creative treatment of actuality” - John Grierson • Every Documentary falls somewhere between the most pure form of “telling a found story” and the less pure “contrived fiction” Surveillance Camera Hollywood Film

  5. Video Documentary • Types of Documentary Film • Expository • Addresses Viewers Directly • Impressionistic • Poetic, Lyrical • Observational • “On the Fly” Capture of Events • Reflexive • Interactive, Autobiographical, Reality TV (?) Robert Flaherty's "Nanook of the North” 1922

  6. Reality TV? • An American Family, 1972 • MTV - The Real World • PBS - The 1900 House, The Farmer’s Wife • CBS - Survivor , Big Brother, Amazing Race • www.weliveinpublic.com

  7. Observational or Nature Video • Moving from Public Space to Private Space • Social Orientation • Photographer as Participant Observer • Photography and Rapport

  8. The Video Interview • “Talking Head” • Three Point Lighting • Adequate Microphone • Boom • Lavalier • Question and Answer • Simple to Edit • Restricts Quality of Content • Open Ended Questions • Difficult to Edit • Content May be Unrestricted / Unexpected Head Room Nose Room Rule of Thirds Background

  9. Using Photographs in the Video Interview • Photo Elicitation • Still Photographs may be used as subject matter to elicit responses from informants • Rough Cuts may be used to direct further research based on community/informant responses

  10. Using Photographs in the Video Interview • Photo Elicitation

  11. Questions?

  12. Video Text Resources • Cross-Cultural Filmmaking, Ilisa Barbash and Lucien Taylor • Visual Anthropology, John Collier, Jr., and Malcolm Collier • The Corporate Scriptwriting Book, Donna Matrazzo • Camcorder in the Classroom, Adrienne Herrell, and Joel Fowler, Jr.

  13. Additional Text Resources • The Little Digital Video Book by Michael Rubin • In The Blink of An Eye by Walter Murch • Setting Up Your Shots. Great Camera Moves Every Filmmaker Should Know by Jeremy Vineyard • Film Directing: Cinematic Motion by Steven Katz • Film Directing: Shot by Shot by Steven Katz • Digital Moviemaking by Scott Billups • Digital Guerrilla Video: A Grassroots Guide to the Revolution by Avi Hoffer • Making Documentary Films and Reality Videos: A Practical Guide to Planning, Filming, and Editing Documentaries of Real Events by Barry Hampe • Creating Motion Graphics with After Effects (With CD-ROM) by Trish Meyer, Chris Meyer

  14. Digital Documentary Film Making • Part 1 - Objectives • Fundamental Technical Knowledge of Digital Video and Digital Photography • Traditional Skills of Video Production • (i.e.., shot composition, audio basics, lighting principles) • Digital Video Editing Techniques

  15. Recent History of Video Technology • Analog = Expensive and Complicated • Digital = Relatively Inexpensive and Simple • Non-Linear Editing (NLE) • miniDV Videotape, Firewire (iLink, IEEE1394)

  16. Traditional “A/B Roll” Analog Editing System

  17. Modern Digital VideoReplaces Big Hardware with Big Software

  18. Modern Tools of Video Production • Digital Camcorder • miniDV, Digital 8, D-9, Digital-Betacam • Non-Linear Video Editing System • iMovie, Premiere, FinalCut, Media100, Avid • NLE does for Video today what the Laser Printer did for Print in the late 1980s • Digital Still Camera • 2-Megapixel, 3-Megapixel, or better… • Graphics and Animation Software • Photoshop, After Effects, even PowerPoint

  19. Digital Video On-Location…

  20. Digital Video Composite Arizona’s Towns: Planning the Past, Saving the Future College of Architecture - Summer 2000

  21. Traditional Tools of “Good” Video Production • Wordprocessor • Microsoft Word, Pencil & Paper, 3M Post-It® • Tripod • Microphones • Handheld, Shotgun, Lavalier, PZM • Lighting Equipment • Lights, Reflectors, Umbrellas • A/C Extension Cords • Batteries • Gaffer’s Tape • Ballpoint Pen…

  22. Questions?

  23. Simple steps to making video Video Vocabulary Shot Composition Lighting & Audio Basics The Video Production Process

  24. Video Production Process • Pre-Production • Outline • Treatment • Script & Storyboard • Production • Shooting Video • Creating Graphics and Animation • Recording Narration, Music, Sound Effects • Post-Production • Editing • Distribution (VHS, www)

  25. Video Shot Vocabulary • Fundamental Shot Types • Establishing Shot • Medium Shot (MS), Medium Close-Up • Close-Up (CU), Extreme Close-Up • Over-the-Shoulder (OTS) • Two Shot

  26. Establishing Shot, Wide Shot

  27. Medium Shot,Medium Close-Up “Talking Head”

  28. Close-Up, Extreme Close-Up

  29. Over-the-Shoulder (OTS) Two Shot Other FundamentalShot Types

  30. Centered, too much headroom Off-center, better headroom Head Room & Nose Room

  31. “Rule of Thirds”

  32. Basic Principals of Lighting • Key Light • Fill Light • Back Light or Hair Light Three Point Lighting

  33. Three Point Lighting Hair Light Key Light Background Light Fill Light

  34. Three Point Lighting Hair Light Key Light Fill Light • http://ether.asu.edu/video/tips_lighting.html

  35. Audio Recording Basics • “Good” Video needs “Good” Audio • Different Types of Recording Require Different Types of Microphones • Handheld • Lavalier / Lapel • Shotgun • PZM (Pressure Zone Mic)

  36. Things to Keep in Mind when Shooting Video • Shot Composition Basics • Headroom, Noseroom • Lighting for Image Quality • Three Point Lighting • Audio Recording • Checklist • Batteries • Videotape • Microphone • Focus • Framing / Shot Composition

  37. Questions?

  38. DV on the PC? • Studio DVPinnacle Systems • www.pinnaclesys.com • Ulead Video Studio • www.ulead.com • Dazzle DV-Editor • www.dazzle.com • MovieDV Suite (screenshot) • www.aistinc.com • Microsoft Producer • www.microsoft.com Ulead Video Studio Dazzle DV-Editor & Firewire card

  39. AIST MovieDVSuite (www.aistinc.com)

  40. Digital Video: Graphics & Animation • Objectives • Introduction to Producing Graphics for Video • Advanced Video & Audio Editing Techniques • Digital Video Compression & Web Video • Internet Distribution

  41. Creating Graphics for Video • Illustrations • Special Effects • Title Screens • “Lower Third”

  42. Creating Graphics for Video • Illustrations • Special Effects • Title Screens • “Lower Third”

  43. Creating Graphics for Video • The “Darwin Movie” • http://ether.asu.edu/video/tips_bluescreen.html click movie to play

  44. Graphics Tools for Video • Adobe Photoshop for still images • Adobe After Effects for animated images • Digital Still Photography

  45. Creating Graphics for Video • Limitations of NTSC (Analog Television) • Color range of Television and Computers • Analog NTSC Video perhaps 5-7 million colors • Computer RGB more than 16 million colors • Interlaced Properties of NTSC • Causes flicker in fine details of images • Overscan and Underscan • Graphic Compositions may only utilize about 80% of the screen real estate

  46. Creating Graphics for Video • Limitations of NTSC (Analog Television) • Launch Photoshop DEMO

  47. Questions?

  48. Video and Audio Editing Techniques • Inserting Elements into a DV Program • Graphics • Audio • Narration from microphone & videotape • Music from CD • Sound Effects • Working with DV Video Clips • Adjusting Clips within the Program Timeline • Cropping Clips • Launch iMovie DEMO

  49. Video Compression • Producing Video for Computer Presentations • Powerpoint, CD-ROM, Kiosk • Compressing Video for Internet Broadcasting / Webcasting / Netcasting

  50. Video Compression • Nearly all Digital Video is Compressed NTSC Video plays at 30 frames / second 1 Frame of Uncompressed Digital Video is approximately 1 MB (30 MB / second)