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Section 9

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  1. Chapter 9 Motion Pictures

  2. Early Days • Thomas Edison 1888 kinetoscope • Edison’s assistant William Kennedy Dickson • Edison also borrowed ideas from Marey and Muybridge and their photographs • Idea was actually Ptolemy Greek astronomer who discovered persistence of vision

  3. Early Days • Persistence of vision—human eye retains an image on the retina for a moment after the image disappears • Flip books • 1895 French brothers August and Louis Lumiere took Edison’s projector to a larger scale and called it cinematorgraphe • Finally, vitascope, developed by Armat and Jenkins—Vaudeville houses with live musical accompaniment

  4. Early Days • Popularity grows and so does price to a nickel thus nickelodeons

  5. The Films • A Trip to the Moon 1902 • The Great Rain Robbery 1903 • Birth of A Nation D.W.Griffith 1915 • Civil War epic three hours • Pantomine • EPS Cycle movies remain in Elite stage shortest period of time of any medium; more elite movies today than in early years

  6. Comedy • Recurring theme throughout all media; comedy is usually most popular genre • Keystone Kops Mack Sennett 1912 • Hal Roach Our Gang • Stan Laurel and Oliver Hardy Who’s On First? • Charlie Chaplin The Tramp • Buster Keaton and Harold Lloyd

  7. World War I • Propaganda films • War Effort • 3 years over 175 films • The Kaiser’s Finish • This also sees Hollywood become the leading producer of films worldwide

  8. Sound • Many thought it would end the industry • Many actors with weak voices did not make the transition • Dr. Lee De Forest one of the first sound on film processes around 1923 • Warner Bros. 1927 The Jazz Singer starring Al Jolson; changes everything • Silent films disappear quickly

  9. Censorship • We should add this as the third step in the EPS cycle • Every time a medium goes popular, a wave of social change comes about and morality is threatened • Roaring 20s/Jazz Age • PCA Production Code Administration 1934 • Motion Picture Producers and Distributors Association 1922 Will H. Hays • Republican/Presbyterian—need I say more?

  10. Censorship • Hays gave fines for not getting the approval up to $25,000 a huge sum for that time • First real challenge was Otto Preminger • Released his films without Hays’ permission • Classic line from Clark Cable was also cited by Hays

  11. Studio System • As we stated earlier, Payne Fund Studies show large numbers of teens going to movies weekly • To keep up with demand, Hollywood develops a system of major studio producing hundreds of films each year • Marketing departments create stars and contracts

  12. Studio System • Warner Brothers • MGM Metro Goldwin Mayer (sp?) • Paramount • 20th Century Fox • Universal • RKO • The Great Depression movies aid morale

  13. Musicals and Other Genres • Westerns • Comedies • Musicals Busby Berkley • Gangsters • Romantic comedies • Frank Capra films It’s A Wonderful Life • Blockbusters Gone With The Wind

  14. HUAC • 1947 House Un-American Activities Committee • Communist propaganda • Became a witch hunt • People were blacklisted and never worked again • Many would work under assumed names • Later credits were restored but many were ruined and were guilty of nothing

  15. Anti-trust • 1948 Supreme Court • Illegal monopoly of studios to operate all aspects from creation to distribution • Created laws prohibiting ownership of studios and theatres by same company

  16. Television • 1948 TV networks emerge • Baby Boom after World War II kept many home with small children • Sports such as baseball transferred well to TV • Studios forced to create alternative experiences gives rise to 3-D and color in films (TV was still B &W)

  17. Ratings System • One more time, a new medium forces culture to review its morals • Because of TV, movies cater to youth culture and counter culture and contain sexually explicit and violent materials • Blackboard Jungle • Causes concerns • Enter the ratings system of 1960s

  18. Ratings System • G • PG • R • X (now NC-17) • PG 13 added after Spielberg’s Gremlins and Indiana Jones and The Temple of Doom • XXX

  19. 1970s • Disaster and violence become genres • The Poseidon Adventure • Towering Inferno • Halloween • Texas Chainsaw Massacre

  20. 1990s • Special effects • Again, a response to programming on TV; cable allowed for more explicit programming • Hollywood responds with big budget special effects films • Video Rentals people believe will kill the industry • DVD digital video disk • Conglomerates • Future?