Social Order(s) HUM 2052: Civilization II Spring 2009 Dr. Perdigao February 25, 2009
Liberalism Roots in John Locke (17th century) and Enlightenment philosophy (18th century) Constitutional guarantees of personal liberty and free trade in economics, leading to social improvement and economic growth Support of Industrial Revolution but opposing violence and state power promoted by French Revolution Middle class—manufacturers, merchants, professionals support liberalism (MW: 674)
Socialism Following liberalism “liberties advocated by liberals benefited only the middle class—the owners of factories and businesses—not the workers” (MW: 675) Sought to reorganize society Critique of Industrial Revolution for creating two classes: new middle class (capitalists who own the wealth) and working class Robert Owen—Welsh—factory town in Scotland, then Indiana (New Harmony, 1920s) (Florida?) Emancipation of women (MW: 675-676)
Collectivists and Communists Socialists after 1840 “emphasizing their desire to replace private property by communal, collective ownership” (676) Marx (1818-1883) and Engels (1820-1895) Communist League, 1848 Communist Manifesto “capitalist free enterprise system that had created the crystal palace was now on the verge of collapse and would soon be overturned by the very class of laborers it had created to meet industrial demands” (1369) Bourgeoisie vs. proletariat Bourgeoisie (capitalist) Proletariat (working class) Embrace industrialization to bring about proletarian revolution and “abolition of exploitation, private property, and class society” (676)
Rise of Marxism Unions after 1848, continuing revolutionary spirit Anarchism as destruction of state power because “the existence of the state was the root of social injustice” (MW: 713) Mikhail Bakunin (1814-1876) Marx: political theorist and labor organizer Scientific theory (like Darwin?): mathematical calculations of production and profit (MW: 713) Das Kapital Returns to John Locke (another influential text for Frankenstein) “that human existence was defined by the necessity to work to fulfill basic needs such as food, clothing, and shelter” (MW: 713).
The Road to Revolution Materialism as class relationships developed around work the “mode of production” Feudalism (serf and medieval lord); slavery (slave and master); capitalism (worker [proletariat] and capitalist) Rather than emphasize individual rights, he focuses on “unequal class relations” (MW: 713) and discarding the “romantic views of the Utopian socialists” to focus on struggle as means to bring change Marx “rejected the liberal Enlightenment view that society was basically harmonious, maintaining instead that social progress could occur only through conflict” (714)
Defining the Revolution From “Revolutionary Principles” (1369-1370): Change in assumptions in science, philosophy, the structure of society, human identity Nietzsche’s argument that Western culture is in decline—moral decay of society and loss of individual freedom Marx and Engels—cultural decline—problems in capitalist free society that produced the Crystal Palace was falling apart and would be overturned, foreseeing revolutions in their times “Revolutions of the mind”: challenging accepted ideas in science, philosophy, and society The “woman question” answered best in theory or in salons, their place in history After Newton, questions of God’s role in world, Darwin’s theories in relation to that center, creationism
Limits of Civilization “the epidemic of over production” that leads society into “momentary barbarism” (return to Montaigne?) “Because there is too much civilisation, too much means of subsistence, too much industry, too much commerce. The productive forces at the disposal of society no longer tend to further the development of the conditions of bourgeois property; on the contrary, they have become too powerful for these conditions, by which they are fettered, and so soon as they overcome these fetters, they bring disorder into the whole of bourgeois society . . .” (1386).