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**Engineering principles and techniques in room acoustics**prediction Bengt-Inge Dalenbäck, CATTGothenburg, SWEDEN Introduction Geometrical acoustics Algorithm properties Algorithm benchmarks Adding some wave effects Input data Measurement comparisons Summary**Introduction 1:4**• Geometrical acoustics (GA) based software were 15-20 years ago almost exclusively used for predicting room acoustics in concert halls, operas, an auditoria • Sound system prediction was almost exclusively based on direct sound coverage, possibly with a classical approach based on a Sabine RT to estimate some intelligibility measures • Since then the two types of prediction fields have essentially merged and concert halls, operas and auditoria now represent only a small part of what these software are used for and predictions e.g. for big voice alarm systems have become common • Many types of models are now extremely challenging, probably too challengingfor GA • Examples are very big and flat models, with uneven absorption, such as airport halls with many pillars and coupled side volumes, multi-room, multi-floor, or both**Introduction 2:4**• In concert halls and auditoria the complexity is mainly concentrated on the walls and in the ceiling and has been possible to simulate well by a simplified geometry and frequency dependent scattering coefficients: Simplified with scattering Actual schematic**Introduction 3:4**• but with many pillars or doorways in between source and receiver diffraction effects will be much more important: schematic**Introduction 4:4**• At the same time these types of projects seldom have good input data available so it is uncertain if a wave-related treatment would be meaningful or even feasible due to the big sizes • Unfortunately, the limitations of GA are not always recognized by users and seem to be less and less emphasized by software developers and even in education**Geometrical acoustics 1:8**• It was taught that GA was applicable if the wavelength was much smaller than the smallest dimension of a surface (d) i.e. << d**Geometrical acoustics 2:8**• Which soon changed to < d in practical modelling • Now it seems to have arrived at >> d since even the 63 Hz octave and below is claimed to be predicted using GA methods: = 7.7 m at the lower band limit of the 63 Hz band and when applying the criteria << d (with << being at least 3 times) it means it will only work for surfaces with all dimensions > 22 m!).**Geometrical acoustics 3:8**• It is interesting to go back to a central reference in room acoustics (H. Kuttruff, Room Acoustics) and chapter IV of the 1973 edition called “The Limiting Case of Very High Sound Frequencies: Geometrical Room Acoustics”. The latest 2009 edition uses similar formulations and adds that“…the limiting case is around 1 kHz ( 0.34 m) but below that it is useful qualitatively“ • but naturally the higher the /d ratio the less useful it is even qualitatively, long wavelength simply do not “see” small objects, they see the overall large scale structure of e.g. a wall**Geometrical acoustics 4:8**• The increase in computer speed and improvements in CAD modelling tools allows handling of more and more complex and detailed models but unfortunately the limitations of GA stay right where they are: • As the figure suggests, it is highly unlikely that if the first round-robin from 1995 were to be repeated now that any of those programs that predicted well at the time would predict significantly better today**Geometrical acoustics 5:8**• Cases are frequently seen where there would be an extremely slim chance to achieve meaningful predictions • One example is where the source is placed in a far corner on the 1st floor of a five-floor library and the receiver is placed in a far corner on the 5th floor. The only communication between the source and the receiver is via a central staircase and around many corners and bookshelves • Only a few rays, if any, will ever reach the 5th floor receiver, any sound reaching that position will have to be via multiple diffraction**Geometrical acoustics 6:8**• Frequency dependent scattering (FDS) can be used to allow prediction for a wider frequency range but that assumes that the model is simplified and details are replaced by an FDS coefficient, but if a model is made with too small details it can only work well at high frequencies for where << d actually holds • After frequent and constant contact with software users during more than 15 years it does seem that the limitations of GA are now not as emphasized in education as they used to and should be**Geometrical acoustics 7:8**• Below is an example where the detailed modelling approach fails completely. As can be seen there is no specular reflection at all from the diffuser when modelled as is, there should have been for the detailed model to act as a diffuser: Shown reversed No 1st order reflection at all!**Geometrical acoustics 8:8**• Below is the result when instead modelling the diffuser flat with an FDS coefficient where the principle behaviour of the diffuser is achieved, i.e. an attenuated specular reflection followed by a diffuse tail:**Algorithm properties 1:9**• During many years software, commercial as well as in research, did not include FDS • The first round-robin in 1995 indicated the need for handling diffuse reflection but since it only covered the 1 kHz band it was not seen if it was implemented with frequency dependence • Today FDS it is finally found in just about all commonly used software • However, even when FDS is implemented it may be done so in several ways, algorithms and scattering functions may differ**Algorithm properties 2:9**• All application of FDS has to be based on the physics of the case at hand (surface detail and size in relation to wavelength) • Even so, FDS coefficients sometimes are treated as if they were magic numbers that are there only to fix a problem in GA prediction but they are directly related to reality, even if it is to a simplified version of reality • One clear example of a not physically reasonable application was when all scattering was assigned to one arbitrary surface in a model and nothing to the rest of the surfaces. No reference will be given to this, and it was 10 years ago. Suffice to say that it was in a peer-reviewed journal and the reviewer did not object to that procedure indicating that the magic number assumption was common**Algorithm properties 3:9**• Do the various FDS functions applied always behave in a physically reasonable way? • The Lambert function has been accused of not being appropriate for acoustics but there is about 50 years experience from its use • The Lambert function can be implemented so that it mimics the behaviour of actual diffusing surfaces, in principle if not in detail: Inside thespecularsector From side Diffusing surface Outside the specularsector Source**Algorithm properties 4:9**Inside the specularsector: specular + diffuse Outside the specular sector: diffuse only**Algorithm properties 5:9**• Other scattering functions are in use that instead of attenuating the specular part - moves the specular sector- has low back-scattering - and thus gives a forward directional bias • For low and high values of the scattering coefficient there is not much difference from Lambert, but for the range in between (where most practical cases end up) the differences can be big • There may well be dedicated diffusers designed to move the specular sector, and where a function like this may be applicable, but if applied for general FDS RT predictions can suffer**Algorithm properties 6:9**• Apart from the FDS function itself, in ray-tracing-like algorithms scattering can be applied in two ways:either via random scattering where the ray exit angle is determined by the scattering function or deterministically by spawning many new rays where the strength of each diffuse ray is determined by the scattering function • Random scattering has the benefit of being fast and simple to implement and has been in use for more than 40 years together with the Lambert function but will lead to some run-to-run variation and will not predict flutter echoes well**Algorithm properties 7:9**• A deterministic diffuse ray split-up method will have no such random effects and can as just shown also give the diffuse “tail” after arrival of an attenuated specular reflection found with real diffusers and can predict flutter echoes • However, a brute force split-up algorithm will lead to an enormous calculation time since every ray is again split up at the next reflection etc but there are ways to implement it without the long calculation times also for full-length echograms • An early working split-up method was shown by Dalenbäck 1996 and a new more general implementation can be found in the new TUCT software used for the predictions in this paper • A different technique with similar properties is the socalled Room Acoustics Rendering Equation as described by Siltanen 2007**Algorithm properties 8:9**• An interesting question is if a very high degree of repeatability (i.e. avoiding random scattering) always is beneficial, may it not give a false sense of accuracy? If results are without random variation it does not mean that they are more correct • A common example of the difference is of two rifles where one has a random spread, but hits the target most of the time and is centred on the target, and the other rifle instead hits all its shots very close but all of them are beside the target:**Algorithm properties 9:9**• Deterministic results may result in a focus on too small details that can never be accurately predicted or even controlled in practice • If the overall method (GA with a few extensions) is anyway an approximation and input data is uncertain, why demand a very high degree of repeatability? • The run to run variation actually helps to concentrate on the broader picture. A good example of the opposite is a specular-only algorithm that is 100% repeatable but that does not predict well in most practical cases**Algorithm benchmarks 1:2**• A good way to check prediction software in general, as well as their implementation of FDS, is to run benchmark "end" cases where the results can be known in advance assuming reasonably shaped single-volume rooms, and see if an algorithm actually predicts those results • In a model with 100% scattering on all surfaces, will the algorithm predict the Eyring RT? Will it, as it ought to, do so independently of the room shape and how the absorption is distributed? • in a room with no explicit scattering (and a non-mixing geometry such as a rectangular shape), will the algorithm predict a T30 much longer than the Eyring RT if the absorption is unevenly distributed or the width, height and length dimensions differ considerably? • If not, the algorithm has a hidden property that gives somewhat diffuse reflections even if the scattering coefficients are set to zero**Algorithm benchmarks 2:2**• Will the algorithm predict a mean free path of <l> = 4V/S ? <l> should not be dependent on the scattering functions (if they are uniform) or if there is any scattering at all since <l> is a room shape property, but if the scattering function has a directional bias it can happen that it will not predict the expected <l> • It is important to understand the properties of scattering functions especially if they are of an uncommon type that may give a directional bias and affect the RT prediction • It is also important to get to know how the room behaves before starting massive calculations**Adding some wave effects 1:3**• It may be tempting to try to get away from the limits of GA by adding a limited number of wave effects to an otherwise energy-based GA model. • One example of a wave-effect is diffraction which is likely to improve prediction in special cases such as office screens and for very early reflections if the model is detailed and accurate (which is a problem since GA works best without a detailed model which again leads to more than one model)**Adding some wave effects 2:3**• Another example is to estimate the reflection phase, which often has to be done crudely since all that is know is the absorption coefficient in 1/3- or 1/1-octave bands • Consider if crude reflection phase is included under some assumptions (such as that surfaces are locally reacting) and calculated from the random incidence absorption coefficients, but one surface is either so small that diffraction would really be needed, or that the phase simply can't be well determined. What point is there then to include reflection phase at all? Example for one frequency line in a source to receiver transfer function**Adding some wave effects 3:3**• Modes is another interesting topic since adding phase to reflections calculated from GA will create modes, unless a random phase is used which may give no modes at all - another type of error • A Fourier transform of the synthesized IR will show peaks and dips at low frequencies that will look like modes, the problem is that they are not the correct modes, that can happen with GA only in a few cases like rectangular rooms with hard boundaries and no objects • If wave methods are used for the full prediction it is not a problem (except finding the necessary input data) the main problem is if only some parts of the prediction are based on wave methods**Input data 1:3**• Independent of the prediction method practical prediction suffers from unknown, inaccurate or incomplete input data, often it even has to be estimated. • However, the GA prediction methods are actually at their best when applied at an early stage when not all details are known, i.e. to investigate main effects of room size and shape and the spatial distribution of absorbing and diffusing surfaces, all of which will be hard or even impossible to change at a later stage • It has happened that users spend days searching for an as accurate absorption coefficient as possible for a certain material not realizing that no matter the values used it would have had a very limited effect on the RT, simply because the relative surface area of that material was small • However, when big areas use the same material it can be crucial with accurate data**Input data 2:3**• An example of the difference is when a small patch of concrete is found in a hall, it does no matter if a coefficient of 0.01 or 0.02 (or even 0.05) is used but if the room is all concrete (e.g. a reverberation chamber), the values chosen are critical since going from 0.01 to 0.02 causes a factor of two difference in reverberation time (at frequencies where the air absorption does not dominate) • It is safe to say that in most practical cases the input data, such as absorption coefficients and even more so scattering coefficients, is uncertain. How can that be handled, should a long time be spent searching for (perhaps) accurate values? • No, typically not, it is then time to bring out an old engineering technique when data is uncertain, i.e. to make several calculations using high/low input data combinations**Input data 3:3**• If a model geometry is mixing, or has many dedicated diffusing surfaces modelled with FDS, then calculating two cases using the highest and lowest reasonable absorption coefficients is sufficient • If a model geometry is not mixing or have few dedicated diffusing surfaces then four cases are required (min/max absorption x min/max scattering) and from that measures such as T30 can be bound within reasonable limits. • It must be stressed that problems like these are not due to the prediction software but are purely input data related**Measurement comparisons 1:4**• GA-based prediction can never be very accurate, but differences to measurements are often blamed only on the prediction software while the fact is that measurements often show big deviations between measurement hard/software • One sensitive case is T30 estimates with background noise, examples can be found in a round-robin made by Brian Katz available on-line, but it is not only in such extreme background noise cases that there can be a problem • Some measures, notably EDT, suffers from sensitivity regarding the direct sound arrival time estimate and also regarding the shape of the 0 to -10 dB decay where a linear regression is used according to ISO 3382 in spite of that the early decay often is far from linear, especially close to a source or if a source is directive • A measure with ever increasing importance is STI and with the added simplified STIPa it is clear that the results so far are not consistent depending on which actual STIPa meter is used**Measurement comparisons 2:4**• A perhaps unexpected problem is the use of an “omni-directional” (omni) source.A physical source such as a dodecahedron (dodec) is typically far from omni-directional from 2 kHz and up, the variation over angle is of the order of +/-5 dB, which is within the allowed deviation according to ISO 3382. • If the microphone is far from the source it has little impact but close up a -5 to +5 dB difference will affect most measures strongly depending on the rotation of the dodec as compared to when modelling using an ideal omni source. • In the previous measurement of the diffuser at 8 kHz the first reflection was actually stronger than the direct sound (impossible with a true omni)**Measurement comparisons 3:4**• To illustrate the uneven directivity below is shown a simulated 4 kHz directivity balloon (further dodec-related problems can be found in the references).**Measurement comparisons 4:4**• An additional issue with a dodecis that its impulse response often is quite messy and long. • A new comparison is shown between predicted/measured from earlier (flat diffuser model with an FDS coefficient) but now with the IR predicted with an ideal omni having been convolved with the on-axis IR of the dodec Predicted convoled with dodec IR Measured**Summary 1:4**• Do we really need very accurate prediction methods? Can we ever get the input data to utilize them? • Many times these software are best used in the early stages of a project when room shape and major distribution of absorbing and diffusing surfaces are decided • To perform very detailed calculations at that stage may result in a too myopic view (the proverbial “not seeing the woods for the trees”) • It is especially dangerous if users of these software think they actually can be very accurate • To exemplify that developers do not always indicate the limitations of GA, a number of current accuracy-related marketing statements are here given without further comment or reference (they can all be found on various web sites):**Summary 2:4**“have developed over the last decades an highly accurate prediction …” “fast and accurate“ “the method also yields accurate results...” “...has been developed, which allows a highly accurate and realistic ...” “allows calculations of acoustic parameters with exceptional accuracy and speed” “making X the most accurate, fastest and easiest to use program” “one method is utilized for highly accurate auralisations…” “…help designers learn and grow by graphically displaying accurate predictions…” “over the last years Y has become one of the most powerful and accurate…”**Summary 3:4**• GA based programs can not be highly accurate, but they can be sufficiently accurate to be very useful tools in consulting. They can give say 80% of the answer with a very reasonable amount of work using readily available, or even estimated, input data • The alternative is to use very much more complex wave-based methods such as FEM where say 90 or 95% of the answer may be found (never 100%) but with a very much bigger effort due to the complex input data required (wall impedances for locally reacting surfaces but to catch the true behaviour of vibrating walls or resonant absorbers that is not sufficient) • An important distinction to make is between how advanced an algorithm is, mathematically and/or geometrically, and its potential for prediction. A good example is that some very advanced algorithms have been developed for specular reflections but that does not mean that the prediction results using only specular reflections are good**Summary 4:4**• It can be argued that, for consulting use, it is typically more useful with an even accuracy than if some parts are calculated with high claimed accuracy while other parts are more or less neglected • An acoustician still has to come up with a sound design idea, based on knowledge and experience, and the prediction program can then, within its limitations, offer an independent check, or second opinion, of how well a given design may work • A good description of prediction software based on geometrical acoustics is asa qualified discussion partner -*-