Dar al-Islam Abode of Islam
7th century Arabia • Trade between Byzantium, Sassanid Iran, and Axum (Ethiopia)
Mecca’s Pre-Islamic Foundations • Adam and Eve: Shrine and Tomb • Circumambulation by Noah’s ark • Abraham (Ibrahim), Ismael, and Hagar • 1892 BCE • Zamzam spring • Rebuilt shrine—Ka’ba • Gods in the Ka’ba ( pagan idols?)
Orphan Qurayash tribe Khadija (1st wife) Muhammad 570-632
Spiritual Transformation • Night of Power and Excellence • c. 610 • Jibril (Gabriel) with God’s message • Revelations or Recitations • God = Allah • Public recitations—God or jinns?
“Say ‘Allah is God alone! God the eternal! He begets not and is not begotten! Nor is there like unto Him anyone!” - The Quran 2:344
Muhammad as the last and final prophet Following in the tradition of previous prophets: Adam, Noah, Abraham, Moses, Solomon, Jesus All had been Muslim, but had turned astray or not gotten the entire message Islam = Submission Muslim = one who submits (to the will of God) People of the Book Warning image follows… Seal of the Prophets
The Five Pillars of Islam • Shahadah: There is one God and Muhammad is his prophet. • Salat: 5x Daily Prayer • Fasting during Ramadan • Zakat: Alms for the weak and poor • Hajj: Pilgrimage to Mecca
Prescriptions of Islam • What is being “prescribed” here???
Conflict in Mecca: why? Hijra from Mecca to Yathrib (Medina) 622 Calendar The Umma Mecca 630 Warning!
Abu Bakr the first khalifa (successor) Umar c. 634-644 Uthman (Umayya family) c. 644-656 Ali (son-in-law/cousin) c. 656-660 Death of Muhammad 632
Conflict over succession • Shi’at Ali (Party of Ali) = Shi’ites • Ali, Muhammad’s first cousin/son-in-law should succeed. Movement to Iraq • Ahl al-Sunna wa’l-Jama’a = Sunnis (People of Tradition and community)
Shi’ites • Led by an Imam. • Descendants of Muhammad through Ali and Fatima. • Leaders are divinely inspired and know the hidden meanings of the Quran. • Imam are the only ones who offer judgment on religious law. • 12 heavenly Imams (perfect teachers) • 12th Imam, the Mahdi (guided one), will reappear and guide humans towards justice and peace.
Caliph is the secular leader. No divine connection for leaders. Represents the religious leaders, but doctrine is left to the Ulama (those who know) Sunnis
Quran c.650 (Recitation) • Hadith—words and deeds of the prophet • Shari’a—Islamic Law
First hundred years Non-Arab, non-Muslim population Few forced conversions—taxes People of the Book One had to be Arab to be Muslim and vice versa. mid-700s more and more non-Arabs became Muslim Policy Toward Conquered Peoples
Umayyad Dynasty • (661-750) • Syria, Palestine, Mesopotamia, Egypt, North Africa, Persia, Sind (NW India), Iberian peninsula. • Center at Damascus. • Military expansion. • Dome of the Rock--Jerusalem
Abbasid Dynasty • (750-1258) Crete, Sicily, Cyprus, Rhodes, Sardinia, Corsica, southern Italy, southern France. Center at Baghdad. Not actively expansionist.
Battle at Talas River • 751 Defeat of Chinese troops • Gain of Chinese prisoners of war and their technologies….. • Most important: Paper