How to design an effective e-learning course for medical education Dr. Supten Sarbadhikari, MBBS, PhDFounding Chair Department of Biomedical InformaticsPSG Institute of Medical Sciences & ResearchCoimbatore 641 firstname.lastname@example.org
Background • Shortage of trained faculty and increase in number of medical students in India. • Online resources can reach out across time and space barriers. • Example
Learning Objectives • To understand the advantages and disadvantages of e-learning. • To be acquainted with the tools, applications and resources necessary. • To know the steps for developing e-courses. • To be aware of the issues of content development, barriers and online mentoring.
Performance Objective Plan to Develop an e-learning module for the respective subject domain
REFERENCES • Sarbadhikari SN, How to design an effective e-learning course for medical education, Indian Journal of Medical Informatics. 2008; 3:3 http://ijmi.org/index.php/ijmi/article/view/y08i1a3/15 • Albarrak AI,. Designing E-learning Systems in Medical Education: A Case Study: http://faculty.ksu.edu.sa/AlBarrak/Publications/E-Learning%20Design%20Papers.pdf • Choules AP. The use of elearning in medical education: a review of the current situation, Postgrad. Med. J. 2007; 83: 212-216 • Ruiz JG, Mintzer MJ, Leipzig RM. The Impact of e-Learning in Medical Education, Acad Med. 2006; 81: 207-212. • Naidu S, e-Learning: A guidebook of principles, procedures and practices, Commonwealth Educational Media Center for Asia, 2nd Ed, 2006, ISBN: 81-88770-04-3
Advantages • No time is spent commuting to class and the courses can be availed from physically remote locations, provided Internet connectivity is present. • No travel costs are involved. • One can have a job or pursue some other interests while one attends such courses. • One can learn when one needs it (Just-In-Time or "synchronous", as well as "asynchronous" - where the students interact with the other students or faculty at different times). • One can learn at one's own pace. • Instructions can be more customized and flexible.
Advantages – 2 • Can increase student to student interactions, i.e., peer group learning and higher comfort level. • Can lower costs for both learning providers and organizations that need training • Can offer lower costs for students than in traditional programs • Additional benefits include learning new technologies and technical skills • In a nutshell, it may be termed as “right knowledge at the right time in the right way”.
Disadvantages • Instructors need to learn to be effective online instructors and to convert face-to-face contents online. Confidence and attitude are likely to develop over time and training. • Need for suboptimal Time management (by both students and faculty). • Internet Connectivity and / or Access problems. • More time consuming for instructors to provide individualized feedback (because more learners are often actively involved). • Equipment needs of students and learning providers, involving the cost and adaptability to new technology, as well as, overcoming mundane problems like virus, spam and phishing attacks. • Need for Ongoing technical training and support of learners and instructors.
Disadvantages – 2 • Academic honesty of online students is difficult to monitor. • Need for various types and effectiveness of assessments. • Lack of face to face interaction. • Equity of access to learners of all backgrounds and parts of society. • Requires new skills and responsibilities from learners. • Does not provide many social aspects of a true campus or traditional classroom. • Waning enthusiasm and ignorance.
Tools – Hardware • Web Server: A Computer that can run a computer program that is responsible for accepting HTTP (Hypertext transfer protocol) requests from web clients known as web browsers, and serving them HTTP responses along with optional data contents, which usually are web pages such as HTML (Hypertext markup language) documents and linked objects like images. • At the student end, apart from standard Internet browsers, multimedia appliances like headset, web cam may be optionally required.
Tools – Software a) A solution stack of software, usually free and open source software (FOSS), used to run dynamic Web sites or servers. A common example is the LAMP Architecture, where: • Linux - Operating System • Apache - Apache Web Server • MySQL - Database Management System (Database Server) • PHP - Hypertext Preprocessor (Scripting Language) b) Learning Management System: Commonly used free ones are: Moodle (http://moodle.org) and ATutor (http://atutor.ca/). c) Free lesson construction software to build a teaching website: like Hot Potatoes: (http://hotpot.uvic.ca/)
Tools – Software (optional) d) Blog Publishing System: A commonly used free one is WordPress (http://wordpress.org/ ) is a blog publishing system written in PHP. All data is stored in a MySQL database. e) Wiki software: A commonly used free one is MediaWiki (http://www.mediawiki.org/wiki /MediaWiki), which is a web-based wiki software application used by all projects of the Wikimedia Foundation, and many other wikis, including Wikipedia and Citizendium. f) Videoconferencing (Desktop): Instead of cost intensive (branded) dedicated videoconferencing systems (including both hardware and software), a PC or laptop can be used for videoconferencing using the freeware Skype or Dimdim.
Tools – Human Resources a) Content Developers: Subject or Domain Experts - also known as SMEs (Subject Matter Experts) - they would decide on the actual content (text, slideshows, audios, still images, videos - of lectures or of procedures, blogs, wikis, podcasts, mailing lists or even videoconferencing units). For more advanced medical Institutes, the course may be connected with the Hospital Information System, PACS (Picture archiving and communication system) and EMR (Electronic medical records). b) Web administrators: To design, develop and maintain (update) the site. They should be ably supported by the Network administrators of the Institute. c) Instructors / Tutors / Mentors: To monitor and assist the day to day progress of the students - they may or may not themselves be content developers
Checklist – 1 (i) Initiate Faculty to the pros and cons - as elaborated in section 2 - perhaps with the help of more illuminated faculty members from the Institute or outside. (ii) Encourage regular interchange of ideas, discuss and demonstrate how to overcome practical difficulties. This may be done with face-to-face (F2F) meetings and / or e-group discussions. A Pilot study (for content development, keeping in mind the issues discussed in the next section) may be first undertaken by a core (motivated) group of faculty members. (iii) Take the students into confidence (end-user validation of proposed course modules). Also a "Needs Assessment" of the targeted students may be carried out with an online survey. This step is also very important for ensuring successful participation (and likelihood of knowledge transfer) among the students. Further, students participating seriously in an online survey are likely to be serious in completing e-learning courses.
Checklist – 2 (iv) Concerned faculty members may have to spend a significant amount of time in planning. Just as "practice makes perfect", the first attempt may not necessarily be the best one. (v) The Learning objectives should be clearly stated and appropriate assessment should be carried out with the results counting towards the final grades (e.g., for the Internal Assessment marks). Of course, it has to be ascertained (and perhaps ensured) that the students have sufficient computer and Internet access.
Issues for content Teaching strategies should be creatively blended, using methods like instructional units, case studies, simulations, video units and other Web based resources to encourage learners. These courses should enable learners to see the relevance of the material, respect the expertise learners bring to the course, allow learners to control their own learning paths through meaningful exercise and activities and, last but not the least, emphasize clearly and continually the connections between what is being learnt and the real world applications.
Issues for content – 2 • At first the scope, guidelines and workflow for the course have to be defined. The scope should cover the extent and depth of content coverage. The guidelines should include the strategies, look and feel, and the level of interactivity. • The study material should have an introductory paragraph, one or more explanatory paragraphs, and a summary paragraph. The structure and the navigation through the course modules must be predefined.
Issues for content – 3 • Quizzes or other interactive activities - like exercises or assignments, problem-solving situations, or short simulations should be integrated into the module. • Any module should not contain more than one or two main ideas or concepts. • To meet the course duration and to provide adequate content to the students, content has to be categorized and segregated into predefined parts, main content and additional content. Main content should be covered in detail in the course. Additional content may be placed in the Reference section of the course. It may be included as optional reading at appropriate places. • Only the most important “must-know” (essential or need) details should be emphasized, while the “nice-to-know” (desirable or want) ones may be added to the additional reading materials. This can help to maintain the prescribed course duration without resulting in content overload.
Issues for content – 4 • Wherever possible, the text content should be supplemented with audio and/or video clips containing relevant information, such as background information, "how to" instructions, or examples that further clarify key learning concepts. • The content format should ideally be compliant to the standards like XHTML (Extensible hypertext markup language) of W3C (World Wide Web Consortium) and Sharable Content Object Reference Model (SCORM) that is a collection of standards and specifications adapted from multiple sources to provide a comprehensive suite of e-learning capabilities that enable interoperability, accessibility and reusability of Web-based learning content. • Testing for validation and careful packaging (keeping in mind download limits of the end-users) have to be undergone before the final launch.
Online Mentoring • The e-mentoring sessions are stronger pillars for the success of any e-course. However well written the course material may be, peer-group and student-mentor discussions on specific practical problems help in understanding difficult concepts and real-life dilemmas far better. • Just like all the fingers of a hand cannot be of same size, all the tutors/instructors/faculty mentors in such e-courses will not be equally responsive. Some may be intimidating, some may be encouraging. No amount of meticulous planning or briefing for such activities will be able to overshadow individual brilliance or dullness.
Barriers A. Usability issues (for both the faculty and the students) • I. Access to and comfort with the Internet • II. Proper time management
Barriers – 2 B. Design issues I. Giving more importance to the interface compared to the actual content. II. Copyright issues (where plagiarized materials are freely uploaded) III. Underestimating the role of SMEs (Subject Matter Experts). IV. Lack of well planned learning objectives V. Ineffective mentoring and peer-to-peer knowledge transfer.
Summary To make certain that e-learning is effective, the study materials have to be validated for construct, content and pedagogy. Further they must be: a) Easily accessible. b) Easy to download. c) Easy to understand (written in a language suited to the level of the students). d) Learning objectives should be clear and the course designed to meet those objectives (good planning is a must). e) Sufficient hands-on exercises / assignments / quizzes should be supplemented to the “static” reading (text/image), viewing (video) and listening (audio) study materials and “dynamic” (interactive) contents, if possible. f) Another important aspect is that of “effective designing” that stresses more on “usability”. • Another example is in the last slide