Automated X-ray Time Detection Team Members: Joe Poblocki, Prakash Rao, Aaron Huser, Pathik Soni, Kyle Fisher, and Tom Knight Advisor: Prof. John Webster, Ph.D Client: Dr. Walter Peppler, Ph.D Dept. of Medical Physics/Radiology Dr. Gary Wendt, M.D. Dept. of Radiology
Problem Statement The purpose of this project is to design a system that accurately and automatically detects the date and time of radiation exposure on a computed radiography (CR) cassette during x-ray exams.
Problem Motivation • Currently, the x-ray is assigned a time based on development, not that of exposure • Potential for incorrect diagnoses and/or double exposure • The possibility of human error exists
Design Constraints • Device should be as lightweight and thin as possible • Software with an easy to use interface and customizable features • Reliable data transmission • Long battery life • Device must be durable to withstand repeated use and accidental impacts • Fluid- and light-resistant housing
Background (cont.) • Constraints with the x-ray reader • Top of cassette has clearance of ~7/8 in. • Bottom of cassette has clearance of ~2.25 in. • Middle of cassette has clearance of 10-15 inches • This is not taking into consideration the thickness of the cassette
Detection and Amplification • X-ray detector is comprised of Si photodiode coupled to scintillator • Scintillators convert x-ray energy into high energy photons • Photodiode absorbs photons and creates current flow in external circuit
Design and Amplification Based on ICL7650
Design #1: Timestamp via Infrared Transmission By Joe Poblocki and Kyle Fisher
Timestamp via Infrared Transmission • Infrared (IR) light is commonly used to transmit signals wirelessly. • Our design couples IR with an X-Ray detector to automatically transmit time and patient information to a P.D.A. for storage.
Infrared Signaling • Common sources of infrared include light bulbs, central heating systems, and the human body which can interfere with transmission of signals. • Modulating the signal allows the IR light source to blink in a particular frequency so the IR receiver, tuned accordingly, can ignore everything else.
Design Advantages • Attachment to x-ray cartridge is small and lightweight • Signal is transmitted automatically • Inexpensive • Reduces the possibility for human error • Easily provides feedback to technician
Potential Problems • Unique signal must be created for transmitter to avoid interference • Signal reliability is dependent upon the distance between the transmitter and receiver • Adds additional step in x-ray stamping process
P.D.A. IR Emitter IR Receiver X-Ray Detector USB Connection PDA module Total $400 $15 $75 $30 $25 $1000 $1515 Projected Cost
Design #2: PCMCIA Data Acquisition Team Members: Aaron Huser Pathik Soni
Components of Time Stamping System • Scintillation Crystal and Photodiode • Operational Amplifier • LabVIEW 7.1 • LabVIEW for PDA device • National Instruments PCMCIA-4050 • PDA with Palm OS or Pocket PC 2003 OS • Test Probes
Possible Pocket PCs • palmOne Zire 72 • $250 • 312 MHz processor • Dell Axim X30 • $300 • 624 MHz processor • hp iPAQ h4150 • $400 • 400 MHz processor
Software Applications • LabVIEW software used to make a program to acquire data • LabVIEW PDA Module will allow software to be used on a PDA with Pocket PC OS 2002 or later • LabVIEW or WinBatch will be used to take infromation from the PDA and store it in the X-Ray file
PCMCIA 4050 • Probes monitor the voltage via connection with the operational amplifier • PCMCIA card communicates with Pocket PC and LabVIEW • Cost of probes and PCMCIA card: $715
Total Costs • Dell Axim X30 PDA $300 • Scintillation Crystal and Photo Diode $30 • LabVIEW w/ PDA Module $1000 • PCMCIA 4050 and Probes $715 ______________________________________ • Total: $2045
Advantages and Disadvantages • Advantages • Computer program records the time • Pocket PC is portable • Reduced potential for human error, everything is done electronically • Disadvantages • Cost ($2000 +) • Probe wires, photo diode, and pocket pc will all be on the cassette
Design #3: Wireless PDA with Confirmation System By Tom Knight and Prakash Rao
Wireless PDA with Confirmation System • Flow Diagrams of PDA and Laptop Functions • PDA Functions • Laptop Functions • Benefits of System • Possible Concerns • Expenses
PDA Functions PDA Located on X-ray Machine • Scan Barcode of Patient ID • Scan Barcode of Film ID • Verify with Laptop that Film has not been Exposed • Sense Voltage Increase from X-Ray Exposure • Record the Time and Date of Exposure • Transmit all Information to Laptop Database
Laptop Functions Laptop Located in Developing Room • Receives Patient ID, X-ray ID, Time and Date from PDA • Verifies for PDA that Film ID is not exposed • Acknowledge that both PDA and Laptop Received Sent information • Keeps Database of Patient ID with Film ID and Time • After Developing, Technician Changes Time and Date of X-ray
Benefits of System • Accurately Records Time and Date • Operates with Minimal Human Interaction • Communicates Wirelessly, Automatically • Equipment not Exposed to X-ray Radiation • Multiple X-ray Machines can be Integrated • Cassettes only require addition of X-ray detector • Requires only 1 PDA per machine • Requires only 1 Laptop per developing room
Possible Concerns • Wireless Interference and Quality • Technician Transcribing Error • Process of Plugging Cassette into PDA
Expenses • X-ray Detector < $30 • PDA $450 • Laptop $900 (could use current PC) • USB Oscilloscope $200 • USB Hub (splitter) $20 • Barcode Scanner $70 • PDA Module $1000 (UW Software used) Price per Cassette: < $30 Price per Machine: $750 Initial expense Range: $1800-$2700
Future Work • Research effects of X-Rays on semi-conductors • Research educational discounts for software • Research more DAQ techniques • Write LabVIEW and WinBatch programs • Test LabVIEW and WinBatch programs • Evaluate small group designs and choose a final design
Works Cited • Hamamatsu Photonics Homepage. <http://usa.hamamatsu.com>. • Infrared Remote Control Technology.<http://www.epanorama.net/links/irremote.html>. • National Instruments- Test and Measurements. <http://www.ni.com>. • PC World. 03 June 2004. <http://www.pcworld.com/reviews/article/0,aid,116027,00.asp>. • Somers, Steve. IR Control - The Invisible Frontier. <http://www.extron.com/technology/archive.asp?id=irrf95>. • TotalBarcode.com. <http://www.totalbarcode.com>. • USB-Instruments. 2004. <http://www.usb-instruments.com>.