نقش آموزش د رارتقاء سلامت خانواده The Role of Education on Family Health
دکتر محمد کمالی استاديار دانشکده علوم توانبخشی دانشگاه علوم پزشکی ايران www.mkamali.com firstname.lastname@example.org تهران - صندوق پستی 183-17445
Is There a Difference Between Health Education and Health Promotion? • Health education: learner directed • Health promotion: broader concept directed toward advocating health: • Individual and community education • Environmental change • Policy changes • Economic changes • Shifts in societal norms
I. What is Health Promotion? • A broad field encompassing educational, social, economic, and political efforts • Practiced in many settings • An unifying concept that brings together many separate fields • Allows people to take control and responsibility for their health
II. The Triad of Health Promotion • Prevention • Health Protection • Role of Health Education • Relationships Among the Triads
Prevention • Primary Prevention – interventions to avert disease, illness, injury, or deterioration • Secondary Prevention – identifies disease at its earliest stages and applies appropriate measures to limit the consequences • Tertiary Prevention – prescribes specific interventions to limit the effects of disabilities and diseases and to prevent recurrence of disease
Health Protection • Legal or fiscal controls, regulations and policies, and voluntary codes aimed at positive health • Health promoters overcome many health barriers to health protection
Role of Health Education • The core of the total health promotion program • A planned process which usually combines educational experiences to establish healthy behaviors • Educate individuals, media, elected officials, and community leaders about health
Relationships Among the Triad • Triad should be viewed as an interlocking set of spheres of activity • Seven domains produced by the relationships
III. Framework for Health Promotion • Three levels of concern and action • Health challenges • Health promotion mechanisms • Implementation Strategies • Explores biopsychosocial processes that motivate individuals to engage in behaviors • Health promotion triad runs through framework • Most important challenge is reducing health inequities between low- and high-income populations
IV. Special Themes in Health Promotion • Empowerment – people assuming control over their lives • Ecological perspective views as a product of the individual and subsystems of the ecosystem (family, culture, physical, social environment) • Community organization – multi-phased process helping to produce change and develop the community • Individual behavior plays a key role in one’s health
The concept of health • The concept of health is defined as the state of body and mind which affords the individual the ability to strive toward his/her functional objectives and his/her culturally desired goals.
Popular Definition of Health Education • Any combination of learning experiences designed to facilitatevoluntary adaptations of behavior conducive to health. • Green, Kreuter, Deeds, & Partridge, 1980
Ultimate Goal of Health Education? • Enable people to increase control over their health and quality of life. • Empowered learners feel competent and confident about making health decisions that are right for them.
Health Education Produces Health Literacy • Capacity of individuals to obtain, interpret, and understand health information and services. • Competence to use such information and services in ways which enhance/maintain health of self and family members.
World Health Organization (WHO) • has recently defined health literacy more broadly, as follows: • Health literacy represents the cognitive and social skills which determine the motivation and ability of individuals to gain access to, understand and use information in ways which promote and maintain good health. • Health literacy means more than being able to read pamphlets and successfully make appointments. • By improving people’s access to health information and their capacity to use it effectively, health literacy is critical to empowerment. (WHO, 1998)
Whatever definition you choose… • “…one fundamental principle must guide the work of health educators: • Individuals • Families, and • Communities Can be taught to assume responsibility for their own health and, to some extent, for the health of others.” Butler, 2001
The challenge is… • “…to find the most productive ways to influence voluntary individual and community behavior without violating individual freedoms ...” Butler, 2001
Effective Health Instruction • “What to teach and how to teach it.” • Dalis, 1994 • Knowledge does not always change attitudes or behavior • Attitudes are not always consistent with behavior
Effective Health Instruction • Conduct interventions to reach a number of generic outcomes including: • Skill development • Values awareness • Concept and information acquisition and application • Opinion development and discussion • Decision making
The process of health education… • Is a part of a sequential program that introduces concepts at appropriate learning levels and that is based upon what was learned previously, which forms a basis for what is to be learned in the future.
The process of health education… • Emphasizes in a comprehensive manner how various aspects of health are interrelated and how all aspects affect quality of life • Includes interaction between a qualified educator and learner.” Butler, 2001
Health Education Practice • “…is that multidisciplinary practice…concerned with designing, implementing, and evaluating educational programs that enable individuals, families, groups, organizations, and communities to play active roles in achieving, protecting, and sustaining health.” Report on the Joint Committee on Health Education Terminology (1990).
Steps to Develop a Health Education/Promotion Program • Assessing the needs and assets of the target population • Prioritizing needs based on available resources, available data, & experience • Developing appropriate goals and objectives • Creating an intervention that considers the peculiarities of the setting • Implementing the intervention • Evaluating the results
Home and Family Influence on Education Active capital: where parents are active and interact with children and schools and community. Passive capital: parents provide children with resources for education.
Active and passive capital • Both types of capital can influence the educational achievement, however, active capital in particular can have a significant impact. • e.g. John Stuart Mill at an age before most children attend school was taught Latin and Greek by his father…he most likely did not have extraordinary genes, and his fathers’ learning was no more extraordinary than some men of the time...the central difference was the time and effort spent by his father with the children on intellectual matters.
Parenting Styles: Authoritarian Style – based on rigid adult oriented rules. Authoritative Style – based on firm consistent control Permissive Style – based on accepting, positive and warm approach in conjunction with few demands. Indifferent-uninvolved – barely involved with family life.
Other factors in parental influence: • Parental Encouragement – can be active or passive and tends to have a positive effect on a educational programs. • Parental Expectations – can have an effect on post-secondary expectations
Parents education • Parental Education– tends to have a strong impact on all other factors because parents with higher education tend to spend more time with children helping with homework, and difficult assignments.
Family Needs • Communication Needs • Information Needs • Guide on life Tasks • Consultation Needs • Economic and Financial Needs
Family Education • Individual Education • Group Education • Mass Education • Self Education
New Ideas and Practices • Awareness • Interest • Evaluation • Trial • Adoption
Friends Support Group Members Pamphlets Medical and Rehabilitation Team Library Mass Casual Acquaintances (e.g. waiting room) Co-Workers Internet Referrals Books Attitudes Culture The Family Perspective
Practice of Health Education • Individual and family • Education to general public • T.V • Radio • Press • Films • Health magazine • Posters • Health exhibition • Health museum Mass media is less effective in changing human behavior
Lectures Film and charts Group discussion Panel discussion Symposium Workshop Institute Role playing Demonstration Programmed instruction Stimulation and exercise Group Health Education
Keep in mind Human Behavior is Complex Participants/clients/patients base their opinion on their perception • How relevant the program or health education seemed to be in terms of their needs • How interesting it was in terms of subject matter and learning activities Tips: Assess the learner perceptions early Adapt/adjust activities if needed
Stages of Successful Education • Audience analysis • State objectives • Select media and materials • Utilize media and materials • Require learners participation • Evaluation and revise
Peoples Education TIPS • Discuss; DON’T LECTURE! • Consider circumstantial & socio-economic factors • Respect cultural/spiritual beliefs and attitudes • Ask the people what they understand about the health issue • Assess the people’s readiness for change • Keep it simple • Reinforcement, reinforcement, reinforcement • Relapse is part of changing behavior
Health Crisis is running faster Health Crisis Health Education
Do you Agree? Health Education is moving in the right direction – but much too slowly
1969 The Beginning 1971 Soon After… More Recently… The Internet
Appropriate technology can revolutionize… • The delivery system of products and services • The way we communicate • The way we use and view television • The way we individualize and personalize education • The way we internalize, understand, and use massive amounts of data
Medical Doctors and other Health Professionals as Consultants of Health Educators