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E. Michael Loovis

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  1. chapter6 Behavior Management E. Michael Loovis

  2. Learning Objectives • To identify 6 approaches to managing behavior in APE and sport • To understand and apply behavior modification principles and procedures • To analyze strengths and weaknesses of the different behavior-management approaches • To execute an applied behavior analysis in an instructional episode with a student who has a disability

  3. Behavior Modification • Systematic process • Application of reinforcement learning principles • Behavior controlled by its effect on the environment

  4. Reinforcement • Positive • Negative

  5. Punishment • Presentation of an aversive consequence • Removal of a positive stimulus

  6. Extinction • Withholding of reinforcement after a response previously reinforced • No consequence following the response • A stimulus (aversive or positive) neither presented nor taken away

  7. Principles of Operant Conditioning

  8. Types of Reinforcers • Primary • Secondary • Vicarious • Premack Principle

  9. Schedules of Reinforcement • Fixed ratio • Variable ratio • Fixed interval • Variable interval

  10. Procedures to Increase Behavior • Shaping • Chaining • Prompting • Fading • Modeling • Token economy • Contingency management

  11. Behavioral Contract in Physical Education • The terms of this contract are detailed below: • The student will earn one point for every positive state-ment or action made to or about an opponent during parti-cipation in the class basketball unit. Student must earn 10 points to qualify for free time in the gym on Friday afternoons. • The teacher will record every demonstration of the stu-dent’s positive interactions as evidenced by the chart pub-licly displayed in the gym. The teacher will award points during class and supervise free time in the gym on Friday afternoons if the student earns the prescribed number of points. • This agreement is between [student’s name] and [teach-er’s name]. The contract begins on [specify date] and ends on [specify date]. It will be reviewed on [specify date]. • Student’s signature __________________ Date _________ • Teacher’s signature __________________ Date _________

  12. Procedures to Decrease Behavior • Reinforcement of other behavior • Reinforcement of incompatible behavior • Reinforcement of low response rates • Punishment • Time-out

  13. Behavior Modification Program • Identifying the target behavior • Establishing baseline • Choosing the reinforcer • Scheduling the reinforcer

  14. Other Approaches • Psychodynamic • Psychoeducational • Ecological • Biogenic • Humanistic

  15. Psychodynamic Approach • Etiology of psychological dysfunction • Understand “why” individuals behave as they do

  16. Psychoeducational Approach • Inappropriate behavior = maladaptive attempt to cope • Education of “self” • “Here and now” • Self-instruction / reinforcement / reward • Life-space interview

  17. Ecological Approach • Disturbance in student’s environment. • Effect is reciprocal and negative. • Environments accommodate individuals, not vice versa.

  18. Biogenic Approach • Neurophysiological dysfunction. • Emphasis is on etiological factors. • Major strategy is drug therapy. • Stimulants • Neuroleptics • Antidepressants

  19. Humanistic Approach • Maslow’s self-actualization theory • Rogers’ concept of fully functioning self • Attitude theory and disability studies • Humanism and adapted physical education • Claudine Sherrill • Don Hellison

  20. Behavior Management • Control behavior • Promote skill acquisition • Teach prosocial behaviors