PRACTICE TYPES Movement classification is often used to determine the most effective ways to learn and practise skills. The conditions in which a skill is learned or practised should also replicate the circumstances of actual performance as closely as possible.
VARIED PRACTICE • Open skills are best practised in a constantly changing, unpredictable environment. • This allows the performer to develop the necessary perceptual and decision making skills. • The player will learn to adapt the skill to suit the situation. These adaptations are stored and the experience or schema of the player is expanded. • This type of practice improves selective attention, making information processing faster and more efficient. • Before introducing varied practice a novice usually learns a skill in a fixed environment, building up a motor programme of the skill. This allows the learner to groove or over-learn the skill, which can be adapted later.
FIXED PRACTICE • Closed skills require fixed practice because the environment in which they are performed remains the same and, once perfected, the movement pattern never changes. • These stereotyped actions should be grooved to the point of being habtual.
PART PRACTICE • Low organisation skills can be broken down into sub-routines. • Part practice allows the performer to work on an isolated sub-routine in order to perfect it. • Part practice reduces the possibility of overload, so is useful with beginners. • It allows a performer to focus on a specific sub-routine and can, therefore, be useful in correcting faulty technique. • It can also be useful with complex skills or with those involving an element of danger. • Gymnasts and trampolinists use chaining to learn and link the movements or sub-routines of their sequences. It is important for them to learn the movements in the correct order. • Backward chaining is sometimes used when teaching skills such as throwing events in athetics, eg. javelin
WHOLE PRACTICE • High organisation skills need to be taught as a whole as the sub-routines cannot be separated without disrupting the flow of the movement eg. Sprinting, dribbling. • Ideally all skills should be taught as a whole as this allows the learner to develop a feel of the skill. This is termed kinaesthesis.
WHOLE-PART-WHOLE PRACTICE • This involves presenting the whole skill to the performer. • The sub-routines are then practised separately. • Finally the whole skill is reintroduced.
SKILL SIMPLIFICATION • If a skill is complex, high in organisation and/or dangerous the task should be made easier. This is called task simplification. • Eg. A bicycle could be fitted with stabilisers. A harness could be used to assist a trampolinist in learning somersaults. Children may play short tennis before progressing to tennis. Small sided games of hockey/ football may be introduced before progressing to the full game