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Force representation 1

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  1. Intensity representation1 Representation of the intensity of sound (or is it something else about efficiency?)

  2. Resolution and efficiency Broad filter “standard” listener Inefficient listener Threshold- 20 log m Threshold Poor temporal resolution Inefficient listener “standard” listener Notch Width (∆f/f) Modulation Frequency (Hz)

  3. Contributors to inefficient listening • Intensity resolution • Inattentiveness • Listening strategy • “Physiological” noise

  4. Problem with measuring intensity resolution How do you separate bad performance from bad resolution?

  5. Resolution and efficiency Broad filter Poor resolution Inefficient listener Threshold Don’t know Threshold “standard” listener “standard” listener Stimulus Notch Width (∆f/f)

  6. Topics in intensity processing • Absolute sensitivity • Intensity discrimination • Loudness

  7. Prenatal absolute sensitivity: measurement problems • What is the stimulus that reaches the fetal ear? • What is the stimulus that reached the fetal inner ear? • What is the message in the fetal auditory nerve? • Is the response to the sound or to the maternal response?

  8. Lecanuet et al. (1988) • 37-40 wk gestational age fetuses • 500, 2000, 5000 Hz octave bands of noise • Speaker 20 cm above maternal abdomen (mother listens to music) • 100, 110, 115 dB SPL 1 cm above maternal abdomen • 5 second duration • 5-15 min interstimulus interval • High (“awake”) and low (“asleep”) HR variability • Cardiac and motor responses (ultrasound)

  9. Prenatal cardiac responses to sound 36 28

  10. Prenatal motor responses to sound

  11. Weir (1979): Pure-tone thresholds of newborns • Pure tones 125-4000 Hz, various intensities • Delivered with insert phones • Recorded respiration, heart rate and motor responses; scored as response or not offline • Sensitivity expressed as d’

  12. Pure tone thresholds of newborns

  13. Werner & Gillenwater (1990): Pure-tone thresholds at 2-5weeks • Observer-based method, but without reinforcement of infant response • Tones presented with insert earphones • Frequencies 500, 1000, and 4000 Hz, various intensities

  14. Pure-tone thresholds of 2-5-week-olds

  15. Trehub et al. (1991): Thresholds for octave-band noises, 1.5-3.5 mo • Observer-based method, with no reinforcement • 4-kHz noise band alternated from left to right speakers • Observer responded “signal” or “no signal”

  16. Third-octave band thresholds, 1.5-3.5 months

  17. Olsho et al. (1988) Pure-tone thresholds 3-12 months • Observer-based method (with reinforcement) • Adaptive thresholds, 250-8000 Hz • “ear bud” earphones

  18. Pure-tone thresholds 3-12 months

  19. Thresholds for speech-filtered noise

  20. Third-octave bands, 6 mo-20 yr

  21. Development of the audibility curve: Summary

  22. 1 1 2 2 Time Time Intensity discrimination: Adults and children Which one is more intense, 1 or 2? Amplitude When did the increment occur, 1 or 2? Amplitude

  23. Intensity discrimination: Infants Respond when the intensity changes “gated” Amplitude Time Respond when the intensity changes Amplitude “continuous” “increment detection” Time

  24. Intensity discrimination: infants and children

  25. Detection in noise parallels intensity discrimination

  26. Detection in noise in standard psychophysical procedure

  27. Poor resolution Don’t know Threshold “standard” listener Stimulus Evidence for immature resolution v. other sorts of efficiency?

  28. Increment detection: Infants

  29. Increment detection: Children

  30. Intensity discrimination: Summary • Intensity jnd improves from about 5-7 dB at 6 months to 1-2 dB in adulthood. • Intensity jnd is mature by about 5-6 years of age. • Detection in noise follows the same time course as intensity discrimination. • There is some evidence that intensity resolution is poorer during development for low-frequency sounds.

  31. Loudness

  32. Reaction time as a measure of loudness Reaction time (ms) Intensity

  33. Loudness: Infants

  34. Loudness: Children Line length Intensity

  35. Loudness: Children

  36. Loudness discomfort levels: Children

  37. Loudness discomfort levels

  38. Intensity representation: Summary • Absolute sensitivity at high frequencies is adult like in the preschool period, but at low frequencies continues to mature into the school years. • Intensity discrimination is mature by 5-6 years, and there is a little evidence indicating immature intensity resolution in infants and toddlers. • Loudness may grow faster with increasing intensity in infants than adults, but loudness growth is mature by 4 years.