DR ABC • It has been designed to keep the person breathing until an ambulance arrives. • Without oxygen, the brain is damaged within just 3 or 4 minutes and dead within 10.
D = Danger • Check the area for danger such as electricity. • If you find danger, do not put yourself at risk or else you could also become a casualty. Your safety comes first! Shout or phone for help. • If there is no danger clear the area around the casualty. This could be as simple as stopping the game.
R = Response • Shake the casualty by the shoulders and shout ‘Can you hear me?’ • If there is a response they are conscious and this can tell you how weak they are. • You can also find out where they are in pain (bleeding, broken bones) and stop it from getting worse and phone an ambulance. • If there is no response the casualty is unconscious. This is very serious. Move on to resuscitation (A, B and C).
A = Airway • When a person in unconscious their tongue can block the airway and preventing this is very important. • Loosen any tight clothing. • Raise the chin and tilt the head back to open up the airway fully. • Remove any obvious obstruction such as a gum shield. • Use a tissue round your fingers to scrape away vomit.
B = Breathing • Is the casualty breathing? • Look for the chest rising and falling and listen for breathing sounds. • You can also moisten your cheek and put it near their mouth to feel any breath. • If they are breathing stop any severe bleeding and support any broken bones. • You can also place them in the recovery position while you get help. • But if the casualty shows no signs of breathing, move on to C.
C = Circulation • Feel for the carotid pulse, below the ear, at either side of the ‘Adams Apple’. • A pulse shows the heart is beating and blood is circulating, so you need to give mouth to mouth (kiss of life) to restore breathing. • If there is no pulse you need to give both cardiac massage and mouth-to-mouth ventilation, to restore breathing.
Calling for Help • Dial 999 and the operator will ask you “Which service do you require?, What your phone number is?”, in case you get cut off. • Do not hang up!!! • When you finally get through, be ready to explain exactly where the casualty is and the nature of the injury/ies.
Mouth-to-mouth Ventilation • Make sure the casualty’s mouth is fully open. • Pinch the casualty’s nostrils closed with your thumb and first finger. • Take a deep breath and seal your lips firmly around the casualty’s open mouth. • Breathe out smoothly and firmly until you see the casualty’s chest rise.