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Part 3: Transmission Nuts and bolts and Systems administration Media

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  1. Chapter 3: Transmission Basics and Networking Media Network+ Guide to Networks Third Edition

  2. Objectives • After reading this chapter and completing the exercises, you will be able to: • Identify organizations that set standards for networking • Describe the purpose of the OSI Model and each of its layers

  3. Objectives (continued) • Explain specific functions belonging to each OSI Model layer • Understand how two network nodes communicate through the OSI Model

  4. Objectives (continued) • Discuss the structure and purpose of data packets and frames • Describe the two types of addressing covered by the OSI Model

  5. Transmission Basics • Transmit means to issue signals to the network medium • Transmission refers to either the process of transmitting or the progress of signals after they have been transmitted

  6. Transmission Basics • Analog and Digital Signaling • On a data network, information can be transmitted via one of two signaling methods: analog or digital • Both types of signals are generated by electrical current, the pressure of which is measured in volts

  7. Transmission Basics (continued) • An analog signal, like other waveforms, is characterized by four fundamental properties: amplitude, frequency,wavelength, and phase • A wave’s amplitude • Frequency • Phase

  8. Transmission Basics (continued) • Digital signals composed of • pulses • precise • positive voltages and zero voltages • Data Modulation • used to modify analog signals in order to make them suitable for carrying data over a communication path

  9. Transmission Basics (continued) • Modem reflects this device’s function as a modulator/demodulator • Modulates digital signals into analog signals • Modulation • Frequency modulation (FM) • Amplitude modulation (AM)

  10. Transmission Basics (continued) • Transmission Direction • Simplex • Half-duplex • Full-duplex • Channel

  11. Transmission Basics (continued) • Multiplexing • Allows multiple signals to travel simultaneously over one medium • In order to carry multiple signals, the medium’s channel is logically separated into multiple smaller channels, or sub channels • A device that can combine many signals on a channel, a multiplexer (mux), is required at the sending end of the channel • At the receiving end, a demultiplexer (demux) separates the combined signals and regenerates them in their original form

  12. Transmission Basics (continued) • Time division multiplexing (TDM) • Wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) • WDM enables one fiber-optic connection to carry multiple light signals simultaneously • Using WDM, a single fiber can transmit as many as 20 million telephone conversations at one time • Statistical multiplexing

  13. Transmission Basics (continued) • Throughput and Bandwidth • Throughput is the measure of how much data is transmitted during a given period of time • Bandwidth is a measure of the difference between the highest and lowest frequencies that a medium can transmit • The higher the bandwidth, the higher the throughput

  14. Transmission Basics (continued) • Baseband and Broadband • Baseband is a transmission form in which (typically) digital signals are sent through direct current (DC) pulses applied to the wire • Supports half-duplexing • Ethernet is an example of a baseband system found on many LANs

  15. Transmission Basics (continued) • Broadband is a form of transmission in which signals are modulated as radio frequency (RF) analog waves that use different frequency ranges • Does not encode information as digital pulses • Is used to bring cable TV to your home • Is generally more expensive than baseband • Can span longer distances than baseband

  16. Transmission Basics (continued) • Transmission Flaws • Noise is any undesirable influence that may degrade or distort a signal • Crosstalk occurs when a signal traveling on one wire or cable infringes on the signal traveling over an adjacent wire or cable • Attenuation is the loss of a signal’s strength as it travels away from its source

  17. Transmission Basics (continued) • Latency is a delay between the transmission of a signal and its eventual receipt • The most common way to measure latency on data networks is by calculating a packet’s round trip time (RTT), or the length of time it takes for a packet to go from sender to receiver, then back from receiver to sender • RTT is usually measured in milliseconds

  18. Media Characteristics • Five characteristics are considered when choosing a data transfer media: • Throughput • Costs • Size and Scalability • Connectors

  19. Media Characteristics (continued) • Noise Immunity • The type of media least susceptible to noise is fiber-optic cable

  20. Coaxial Cable • Because of its shielding, most coaxial cable has a high resistance to noise • Coaxial cable is more expensive than twisted-pair cable because it requires significantly more raw materials to manufacture • The significant differences between the cable types lie in the materials used for their center cores, which in turn influence their impedance

  21. Coaxial Cable (continued) • Thicknet (10Base5) Ethernet • Also called thick wire Ethernet, is a rigid coaxial cable approximately 1-cm thick that contains a solid copper core • Thicknet is sometimes called “yellow Ethernet” or “yellow garden hose”

  22. Coaxial Cable (continued) • IEEE designates Thicknet as 10Base5 Ethernet • Thicknet uses a vampire tap and must abide by the 5-4-3 rule of networking.

  23. Coaxial Cable (continued) • Thinnet (10Base2) Ethernet • Also known as thin Ethernet • Because of its black sheath, Thinnet may also be called “black Ethernet”

  24. Coaxial Cable (continued) • Its core is typically made of several thin strands of copper • Thinnet is less expensive than Thicknet and fiber-optic cable, but more expensive than twisted-pair wiring

  25. Coaxial Cable (continued) • Both Thicknet and Thinnet coaxial cable rely on the bus topology, in which nodes share one uninterrupted channel • Networks using the bus topology must be terminated at both ends • Without terminators, signals on a bus network would travel endlessly between the two ends of the network, a phenomenon known as signal bounce

  26. Twisted-Pair Cable • Twisted-pair cable consists of color-coded pairs of insulated copper wires • Every two wires are twisted around each other to form pairs and all the pairs are encased in a plastic sheath

  27. Twisted-Pair Cable (continued) • The number of pairs in a cable varies, depending on the cable type • The more twists per inch in a pair of wires, the more resistant the pair will be to all forms of noise • The number of twists per meter or foot is known as the twist ratio

  28. Twisted-Pair Cable (continued) • Twisted-pair cable is the most common form of cabling found on LANs today • It is relatively inexpensive, flexible, and easy to install, and it can span a significant distance before requiring a repeater (though not as far as coax)

  29. Twisted-Pair Cable (continued) • All twisted-pair cable falls into one of two categories: shielded twisted-pair (STP) or unshielded twisted-pair (UTP) • Unshielded twisted-pair (UTP) • Consists of one or more insulated wire pairs encased in a plastic sheath

  30. Twisted-Pair Cable (continued) • 10BaseT • A popular Ethernet networking standard that replaced the older 10Base2 and 10Base5 technologies • The “10” represents its maximum throughput of 10 Mbps, the “Base” indicates that it uses baseband transmission, and the “T” stands for twisted pair, the medium it uses

  31. Twisted-Pair Cable (continued) • 10BaseT • On a 10BaseT network, one pair of wires in the UTP cable is used for transmission, while a second pair of wires is used for reception allowing full-duplex transmission

  32. Twisted-Pair Cable (continued) • 100BaseT (Fast Ethernet) • Also known as Fast Ethernet • Uses base band transmission • Configured in a star topology • 100BaseT networks do not follow the 5-4-3 rule

  33. Twisted-Pair Cable (continued) • 100BaseTX • Requires CAT 5 or higher unshielded twisted-pair cabling • Within the cable, it uses the same two pairs of wire for transmitting and receiving data • Capable of full duplex transmission

  34. Fiber-Optic Cable • Contains one or several glass or plastic fibers at its center, or core • Data is transmitted via pulsing light sent from a laser or light-emitting diode (LED) through the central fibers • Surrounding the fibers is a layer of glass or plastic called cladding

  35. Fiber-Optic Cable (continued) • Fiber cable variations fall into two categories: • Single-mode • Multimode

  36. Fiber-Optic Cable (continued) • Single-mode fiber • Uses a narrow core (less than 10 microns in diameter) through which light generated by a laser travels over one path, reflecting very little • Allows high bandwidths and long distances (without requiring repeaters) • Costs too much to be considered for use on typical data networks

  37. Fiber-Optic Cable (continued) • Multimode fiber • Contains a core with a diameter between 50 and 115 microns in diameter; the most common size is 62.5 microns over which many pulses of light generated by a laser or LED travel at different angles • It is commonly found on cables that connect a router to a switch or a server on the backbone of a network

  38. Fiber-Optic Cable (continued) • 100BaseFX standard • The 100BaseFX standard specifies a network capable of 100-Mbps throughput that uses baseband transmission and fiber-optic cabling • 100BaseFX requires multimode fiber containing at least two strands of fiber

  39. Fiber-Optic Cable (continued) • 1000BaseLX standard • The most common 1-Gigabit Physical layer standard in use today, can reach 5000 meters and use one repeater between segments

  40. Cable Design and Management • Cable plant • Demarcation point (or demarc) • Backbone wiring • Punch-down block • Patch panel

  41. Installing Cable • Straight-through cable is so named because it allows signals to pass “straight through” between terminations • Crossover cable is a patch cable in which the termination locations of the transmit and receive wires on one end of the cable are reversed

  42. Installing Cable (continued)

  43. Wireless Transmission • Wireless LANs typically use infrared or radiofrequency (RF) signaling • Characteristics of Wireless Transmission • Antennas are used for both the transmission and reception of wireless signals • To exchange information, two antennas must be tuned to the same frequency

  44. Wireless Spectrum

  45. Wireless Transmission (continued) • Signal Propagation • Line-of-sight (LOS) • Signal Degradation • Wireless signals also experience attenuation • Wireless signals are also susceptible to noise (often called “interference”)

  46. Choosing The Right Transmission Medium • Most environments will contain a combination of these factors; you must therefore weigh the significance of each • Areas of high EMI • Distance • Security • Existing infrastructure • Growth

  47. Summary • Identify organizations that set standards for networking • Purpose of the OSI Model and each of its layers • Specific functions belonging to each OSI Model layer

  48. Summary (continued) • Networking nodes to communicate through the OSI Model • Structure and purpose of data packets and frames • Two types of addressing covered by the OSI Model