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  1. Computer networking In this section of notes you will learn the rudiments of networking, the components of a network and how to secure a network

  2. What This Section Will And Will Not Cover • What we will talk about: • The principles of how a network functions, the different parts of a network and one way of securing a network. • What we won’t talk about: • The step-by-step process of building a network. • Typically you can find many sites that already provide this information: • E.g., http://www.microsoft.com/windowsxp/using/networking/setup/default.mspx

  3. What Is Required For A Network • 2+ computers • The hardware and software needed to connect them

  4. Node Node Bandwidth speed Bandwidth speed Bandwidth speed Node Introducing Some Basic Parts Of A Network • Nodes: • Hardware devices that are connected to the network (e.g., printers, computers) • Bandwidth: • Speed at which information transmits through the network • Maximum typically 10 – 100 Mbps

  5. Benefits Of Networking Computers • Resource sharing • Reliability • Cost savings • Communication

  6. Do not accept cheques from this person! Calgary branch Edmonton branch Bad cheque Resource Sharing • Non-networked computers • Information is stored separately and locally on each computer

  7. Do not accept cheques from this person! Calgary branch Do not accept cheques from this person! Edmonton branch Resource Sharing • Networked computer system • Information is accessible from other locations as if it were available locally.

  8. Server #2 Server #1 Internet orders Reliability • Duplicating critical information across a network • May provide useful redundancy TAMCO INDUSTRIES INC.

  9. Server #1 Reliability • Duplicating critical information across a network • May provide useful redundancy TAMCO INDUSTRIES INC. Server #2: down Internet orders

  10. Cost Savings • One shared resource for multiple users instead of one item per user that is used only periodically.

  11. Communication • Electronic communication may allow for faster responses. • Electronic communication may provide benefits not derived from traditional methods of communication.

  12. What You Need For A Two Computer Network • Two computers (obvious) • A network adaptor for each computer • It’s hardware that acts as an interface between the computer and the network. • It can be wired or wireless. • Many new computers include this hardware (no need to buy a special component). USB to network adaptor “NIC” (network interface card/controller)

  13. What You Need For A Two Computer Network (2) • Ethernet connection: a network cable. • Or as an alternative a cross-over cable can be used (looks physically identical to a regular network cable but allows the computers to be connected without the need for additional hardware e.g., hub, switch). • Software to support the network connection (included in modern operating systems like Windows).

  14. What You Need For A Multi (3+) Computer Network • The items mentioned for a 2 computer network • Plus a network hub

  15. Hub • Brings all of the connections together and routes information internally

  16. Hub (2) • Rule of thumb when a hub is needed/appropriate: • Needed to route information in a network consisting of 2+ computers (strictly speaking not mandatory for a 2 computer network because a cross-over cable can be used to directly connect the computers). • Works well for smaller networks or when there isn’t a great deal of information passing through the network.

  17. Hub (3) • Drawbacks of using network hubs: • Scalability • Latency and collisions • Network failure

  18. Switch • Similar to a hub it connects the computers in a network and routes information internally. • They are employed to overcome some of the drawbacks of hubs: • Since prices of switches have declined, hubs are rarely used now (used hubs?)

  19. Router • Used to connect multiple networks.

  20. Router (2) • Routers can also be used to share a broadband connection (referred to as DSL/cable routers) From “Technology in Action” by Evans, Martin and Poatsy

  21. Packets Computer on the network with document Server computer Transmitting Information On A Network • Information is broken down into parts (packets). • The packets are send over the network in groups • When the packets reach their destination they are reassembled into their original forms.

  22. Transmitting Information Over A Network (2) • The route taken can vary from packet-to-packet: Source Destination Reasons for breaking information into packets: Speed Stability

  23. Types Of Network Connections • Wired • Twisted pair: typically used for home or small networks although the fastest ones now rival fiber optic in terms of speed. • Fiber optic: used for larger networks when a lot of data is transmitted. • Power -line networks: uses existing electrical wiring to transmit network information. • Wireless • Typically use the Wi-Fi protocol for transmitting information

  24. Twisted Pair Network Connections • The transmitting wire consists of a collection of paired wires

  25. Twisted Pair Network Connections (2) • The ends look similar to but are larger than telephone cables. Telephone Computer network

  26. Twisted Pair Network Connections (3) • Pros: • Mature proven technology: stable with a great deal of choice • Cons: • Rewiring of an existing home may be expensive (although new homes – North America - often have Cat 5 wiring through out the house). • Typical range ~300’

  27. Fiber Optic Network Connections • Unlike twisted pair and coaxial connections which use electricity, fiber optic connections use light. • Pros: • Fast transmissions (~100 Mbps – 30 Gbps) with few errors • Very long range connections are possible (~62 miles) • Typically used for large networks where there’s a high volume of information transmitted • Cons: • Expensive

  28. Power-Line Network Connections • Rather than requiring new wires to network equipment, this type of network uses existing power lines. • Transmission rates: 200 Mbps

  29. Power-Line Connections (2) • Pros: • Easy to set up. • No new wiring needed, flexibility in the layout of nodes. • Cons: • An entire power outlet must be used (power bars cannot be used). • Performance can be affected by power usage.

  30. Wireless Network adaptor Wireless router A computer Wireless Network Connections • The network is connected via radio waves • The general requirements for setting up a wireless network are similar but not identical to a wired network:

  31. Types Of Wireless Network Connections • All are based on the 802.11 standard (also known as Wi-Fi) for wireless transmissions

  32. Wired Vs. Wireless Networks • Wired: • Speed (faster for many) • Security • Less likely to be affected by interference • Wireless: • Convenience

  33. Wired portion of the network (high security) Mixed Networks • To balance the strengths of wired networks vs. the strength of wireless networks a network can mix-and-match between wired and wireless connections. Wireless portion of the network (security is less of an issue)

  34. Firewall • It’s one way of protecting a network. • Protects the network against things coming into the network: • Certain type of connections to your computer can be disabled e.g., transfer of files to/from your computer. • Connections may be made only by certain users or only within a certain period of time e.g., file transfer only possible for today or only possible for login name ‘tam’ • Some may screen outgoing data

  35. Firewalls (2) • Firewalls may be implemented as software or hardware • Software based firewalls: • Easy to set up and inexpensive (e.g., Windows comes with one built in) • Hardware based firewalls: • Your computer can be attacked if it can be located on the Internet No firewall: your computer has been located Hardware firewall: only the firewall is visible

  36. A Firewall Will NOT Make You Invulnerable! • Firewalls cannot protect against carelessness. If YOU choose to allow a malicious program to have access to your computer then the firewall may still be bypassed. (This is an example of “Social Engineering” and will be discussed further in the section on computer security). • Also if your firewall is secure and your wireless signals are not then someone else may be able to ‘sniff’ out private information from the wireless signals on your network. X Wireless signals can be intercepted even if you have a firewall

  37. After This Section You Should Now Know • What is a computer network • What are some of the benefits of networking computers • What’s needed to network computers • The role of a hub and switch in a network and the differences between them • The purpose of a router in a computer network • How is information transmitted on a network in the form of packets • The characteristics of common wired and wireless networks • How a firewall can be used to secure a network as well as the things that they can’t protect