**Chapter 18**Price Setting in the Business World**How are prices set by business people?**• Costs provide a price floor. • See what substitute products are priced at • Can you offer something of additional value that people will pay a price premium for? • Use this information and market responses to set your prices. • Remember, price increases & decreases have a direct impact on unit profits**Markup Pricing**• Markup - a dollar amount added to the cost of products to get a selling price (638) • Many retailers apply a standard markup to everything they sell. • However, with modern data information price setting is changing to more of a market response method for many firms.**Markup Formulas**• Markup On Selling Price = • (Selling Price - Cost) / Selling Price • Markup on Cost = • (Selling Price - Cost)/ Cost**Markup Conversions**• Percent Markup On Selling Price = • (Percent Markup on Cost) • (100% + % Markup on Cost) • Percent Markup on Cost = • (Percent Markup on Selling Price) • (100% - % Markup on Selling Price)**Markup Example 1**• Your cost is $20 each and your selling price is $25. What is your markup on selling price and your markup on cost?**Answer 1**• Markup on selling price = • ($25 - $20) / $25 = 20% • Markup on cost = • ($25 - $20) / $20 = 25%**Markup Example 2**• Your cost is $100 each and your selling price is $130. What is your markup on selling price and your markup on cost?**Answer for # 2**• Markup on selling price = • (130 - 100) / 130 = 23.08% • Markup on cost = • (130 - 100) / 100 = 30%**Markup Example 3**• Your cost is $50 each and your selling price is $70. What is your markup on selling price and your markup on cost?**Answer to #3**• Markup on selling price = • (70 - 50) /70 = 28.57% • Markup on cost = • (70 - 50) / 50 = 40%**Markup Example #4**• A] You have a 30% markup on selling price. What would this be if it was a markup on cost? • B] You have a 20% markup on cost. What would this be if it was a markup on selling price?**Answer # 4**• A] 30 / (100 - 30) = 42.86% • B] 20 / (100 + 20) = 16.67%**Stockturns**• Stockturn rate (498) • Stockturn rate = • (sales in units) / (avg. inventory in units) • Faster stockturn rates lower inventory holding costs. What is a “high” or “low” stockturn rate depends on the industry.**Average Cost Pricing**• Average Cost Pricing (490) • Problems: • does not consider cost changes at different output levels. • Does not consider the impact price has on quantity demanded**Average Cost Pricing Is Common and Can Be Dangerous (E:**18-3)**Break Even Analysis**• Break - even analysis (505) • Break - even point (505) • BEP (in units) = • (Total Fixed Cost) / (Fixed Cost Contribution per Unit)**Break Even #1**• Your fixed costs are $100,000, your variable cost per unit = $15 and your unit price = $40. What is the break-even quantity? • If you sell 3000 units, what is the profit? • If you sell 6000 units, what is the profit?**Answer #1**• Break-even Quantity = • (100,000) / (40-15) = 4,000 units • At 3000 units? • 3,000 ($40 - 15) - $100,000 = $25,000 loss • At 6000 units? • 6000 ( 40 - 15) - $100,000 = $50,000 profit**Break-even #2**• Your fixed costs are $25,000, your variable cost per unit = $5, and your unit price = $15. What is the break-even quantity? • If you sell 1000 units what is the profit? • If you sell 3000 units, what is the profit?**Answer #2**• Break-even • ($25,000) / ($15 - 5) = 2,500 units • For 1000 units: • 1000 ($15 - 5) - $25,000 = -$15,000 • For 3000 units: • (3000 ($15 - 5) - $25,000 = $5,000**Break-Even #3**• Your fixed costs are $500,000, your variable cost per unit = $2.50, and your unit price is $10. What is the break-even quantity? • If you sell 50,000 units what is the profit? • If you sell 80,000 units, what is the profit?**Answer #3**• Break-Even • ($500,000) / ($10 - 2.5) = 66,667 units • For 50,000 units • 50,000 ($10 - 2.5) - $500,000 = $125,000 loss • For 80,000 units • 80,000 ($10 - 2.5) - $500,000 = $100,000**BE & ROI**• A target profit amount can be added to break even analysis to give the quantity needed to hit a certain profit goal. The target profit amount is added to the fixed costs in the equation.**BE & ROI Problem**• Take the last example. Our goal is now a 10% ROI. What is the quantity needed to hit this ROI target?**BE ROI Answer**• Our new “fixed costs” are • $500,000 & the profit goal. • $500,000 + (500,000 x 0.1) = $550,000 • Break even for this ROI level is • $550,000 / ($10 - 2.50) = 73,334 units**Break Even**• Calculating BEP at several possible prices and forecasting the probable demand at those price points can be helpful. • BE Analysis is also a good illustration of why managers constantly look for ways to cut costs. Cost cuts means you can achieve profitability at much lower sales levels.**Problems with BE Analysis**• Break-even analysis has two big assumptions • 1] There is a horizontal demand curve • 2] Cost curves do not change over the production horizon**Competitive Bidding**• Six steps a firm should use: • 1] Decide if the bid is worth the bid preparation costs • 2] Calculate the direct & indirect costs of the contract • 3] Estimate the probabilities of acceptance at each of several bid levels • 4] Calculate the expected profits at each bid level • 5] Evaluate the process after submission