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  1. Software EngineeringFundamentals Svetlin Nakov National Academy for Software Development academy.devbg.org

  2. Agenda • Software engineering overview • Requirements • Design • Construction • Testing • Project management • Development methodologies overview • The Waterfall development process • Heavyweight methodologies • Agile methodologies and XP

  3. About The Speaker • Svetlin Nakov • Founder and Chairman of BASD • Director training and consulting activities, National Academy for Software Development (NASD) • 15 years of developer experience • 8 year as a professional software engineer, trainer and consultant • Author of 4 books, 20 articles, and 50 seminar lectures • Lecturer in Sofia University and NBU

  4. Software Engineering Requirements, Design, Construction, Testing

  5. What is Software Engineering? Software engineering is the application of a systematic, disciplined, quantifiable approach to the development, operation, and maintenance of software Definition by IEEE

  6. Software Engineering • Software engineering is: • An engineering discipline that provides knowledge, tools, and methods for: • Defining software requirements • Performing software design • Software construction • Software testing • Software maintenance tasks • Software project management

  7. Software Development Activities • Software development always includes the following activities (to some extent): • Requirements analysis • Design • Construction • Testing (sometimes) • These activities do not follow strictly one after another! • Often overlap and interact Software Project Management

  8. Software Requirements Functional, Non-functional Requirements, SRS

  9. Software Requirements • Software requirements define the functionality of the system • Answer the question "what?", not "how?" • Define constraints on the system • Two kinds of requirements • Functional requirements • Non-functional requirements

  10. Requirements Analysis • Requirements analysis starts from a vision about the system • Customers don't know what they need! • Requirements come roughly and are specified and extended iteratively • Prototyping is often used, especially for the user interface • The outcome is the Software Requirements Specification (SRS)

  11. Software Requirements Specification (SRS) • The Software Requirements Specification (SRS) is a formal requirements document • It describes in details: • Functional requirements • Business processes • Actors and use-cases • Non-functional requirements • E.g. performance, scalability, etc.

  12. Software Requirements • It is always hard to describe and document the requirements in comprehensive and not ambiguous way • Good requirements save time and money • Requirements always change during the project! • Good software requirements specification reduces the changes • Prototypes significantly reduce changes

  13. Software Requirements Specification and UI Prototype – Examples

  14. Software Architecture and Software Design

  15. Software Architecture and Software Design • Software design is a technical description about how the system will implement the requirements • The system architecturedescribes: • How the system will be decomposed into subsystems (modules) • Responsibilities of each module • Interaction between modules • Platforms and technologies

  16. System Architecture Diagram – Example

  17. Software Design • Detailed Design • Describes the internal module structure • Interfaces, data design, process design • Object-Oriented Design • Describes the classes, their responsibilities, relationships, dependencies, and interactions • Internal Class Design • Methods, responsibilities, algorithms and interactions between them

  18. Software Design Document (SDD) • The Software Design Document (SDD) is a formal description of the architecture and design of the system • It contains: • Architecture design • Modules and their interaction (diagram) • For each module • Process design (diagrams) • Data design (E/R diagram) • Interfaces design (class diagram)

  19. Software Design Document – Example

  20. Software Construction Implementation, Unit Testing, Debugging, Integration

  21. Software Construction • During the software construction phase developers create the software • Sometimes called implementation phase • It includes: • Internal method design • Writing code • Writing unit tests (sometimes) • Testing and debugging • Integration

  22. Writing the Code • Codingis the process of writing the programming code (the source code) • The code strictly follows the design • Developers perform internal method design as part of coding • The source code is the output of the software construction process • Written by developers • Can include unit tests

  23. Testing the Code • Testingchecks whether the developed software conforms to the requirements • Aims to identify defects (bugs) • Developers test the code after write it • At least run it to see the results • Unit testing is even better • Units tests can be repeated many times • System testing is done by QA engineers • Unit testing is done by developers

  24. Debugging • Debuggingaims to find the source of already identified defect and to fix it • Performed by developers • Steps in debugging: • Find the defect in the code • Identify the source of the problem • Identify the exact place in code causing it • Fix the defect • Test to check if the fix is correct

  25. Integration • Integration is putting all pieces together • Compile, run and deploy the modules as single system • Test to identify defects • Integration strategies • Big bang, top-down and bottom-up • Continuous integration

  26. Coding != Software Engineering • Inexperienced developers consider coding the core of development • In most projects coding is only 20% of the project activities! • The important decisions are taken during the requirements analysis and design • Documentation, testing, integration, maintenance, etc. are often disparaged • Software engineering is not just coding! • Programmer != software engineer

  27. Software Verification and Testing

  28. Software Verification • What is software verification? • It checks whether the developed software conforms to the requirements • Performed by the Software Quality Assurance Engineers (QA) • Two approaches: • Formal reviews and inspections • Different kinds of testing • Cannot certify absence of defects! • Can only decrease their rates

  29. Software Testing • Testingchecks whether the developed software conforms to the requirements • Testing aims to find defects (bugs) • Black-box and white-box tests • Unit tests, integration tests, system tests, acceptance tests • Stress tests, load tests, regression tests • Tester engineers can use automated test tools to record and execute tests

  30. Software Testing Process • Test planning • Establish test strategy and test plan • During requirements and design phases • Test development • Test procedures, test scenarios, test cases, test scripts • Test execution • Test reporting • Retesting the defects

  31. Test Plan and Test Cases • The test plan is a formal document that describes how tests will be performed • List of test activities to be performed to ensure meeting the requirements • Features to be tested, testing approach, schedule, acceptance criteria • Test scenarios and test cases • Test scenarios – stories to be tested • Test cases – tests of single function

  32. Test Plans and Test Cases – Example

  33. Software Project Management

  34. What is Project Management? • Project management is the discipline of organizing and managing resources in order to successfully complete a project • Successfully means within defined scope, quality, time and cost constraints • Project constraints: Scope Project Success Quality Cost Time

  35. What is Software Project Management? • Software project management • Management discipline about planning, monitoring and controlling software projects • Project planning • Identify the scope, estimate the work involved, and create a project schedule • Project monitoring and control • Keep the team up to date on the project's progressand handle problems

  36. What is Project Plan? • The project plan is a document that describes how the work on the project will be organized • Contains tasks, resources, schedule, milestones, etc. • Tasks have start, end, assigned resources (team members), % complete, dependencies, nested tasks, etc. • Project management tools simplify creating and monitoring project plans

  37. Project Plan – Example

  38. Development Methodologies

  39. What is a Development Methodology? • A development methodology is a set of practices and procedures for creating software • A set of rules that developers have to follow • A set of conventions the organization decides to follow • A systematical, engineering approach for organizing software projects

  40. Development Methodologies • The "Waterfall" Process • Old-fashioned, not used today • Rational Unified Process (RUP) • Very formal, lots of documentation • Microsoft Solutions Framework (MSF) • Formal heavyweight approach • Agile Development Processes • E.g. Extreme Programming

  41. The Waterfall Development Process

  42. The Waterfall Process • The waterfall development process: Software Requirements Software Design Implementation (Coding) Verification (Testing) Operation (Maintenance)

  43. Formal Methodologies • Formal methodologies are heavyweight! Lots of documents, diagrams, etc. Requirements System Requirements Design Analysis Detailed Design Software Requirements Coding Preliminary Design Software Requirements Specification Integration Testing Analysis Usage Prelim. Review Program Design Preliminary Design Document Operating Instructions Coding Design Review Testing UI Design Document Final Design Code Review Test Plan Operations

  44. Agile Development

  45. The Agile Manifesto “Our highest priority is to satisfy the customer through early and continuous delivery of valuable software“ Manifesto for Agile

  46. The Agile Spirit • Incremental • Working software over comprehensive documentation • Cooperation • Customer collaboration over contract negotiation • Straightforward • Individuals and interactions over processes and tools • Adaptive • Responding to change over following a plan

  47. Agile Methodologies • eXtreme Programming (XP) • Scrum • Crystal family of methodologies • Feature-Driven Development (FDD) • Adaptive Software Development (ASD) • Dynamic System Development Model (DSDM) • Agile Unified Process (AUP)

  48. Extreme Programming:The 12 Key Practices • The Planning Game • Small Releases • Metaphor • Simple Design • Test-Driven Development • Refactoring • Pair Programming • Collective Ownership • Continuous Integration • 40-Hour Workweek • On-site Customer • Coding Standards

  49. Software Engineering Fundamentals Questions?