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Parallel Syntactic Comment of Various Dialects

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  1. Parallel Syntactic Annotation of Multiple Languages Owen Rambow, Bonnie Dorr, David Farwell, Rebecca Green, Nizar Habash, Stephen Helmreich, Eduard Hovy, Lori Levin, Keith J. Miller, Teruko Mitamura, Florence Reeder, Advaith Siddharthan

  2. Interlingual Annotation of Multi-lingual Text Corpora (IAMTC) • CMU • Lori Levin, Teruko Mitamura • Columbia • Owen Rambow, Advaith Siddharthan • ISI • Eduard Hovy • MITRE • Keith Miller, Flo Reeder • New Mexico State University • David Farwell, Steven Helmreich • University of Maryland • Bonnie Dorr, Rebecca Green, Nizar Habash

  3. Goals of IAMTC • Design an Interlingua • Language-independent representation of text meaning • Useful for MT, IR, IE, QA,… • Develop an Annotation Methodology • Manuals, tools, evaluations • Annotate multi-lingual, multi-parallel texts • Foreign language original and 2 English translations • Foreign languages: Arabic, French, Hindi, Japanese, Korean, Spanish

  4. IL Development: Three Levels • IL0: syntactic dependency tree • IL1: semantic annotations • Concepts: • ‘senses’ from ISI’s Omega ontology • for Nouns, Verbs, Adjs, Advs • Semantic Roles • Theta Roles from Dorr’s LCS work • IL2: reconciliation of different IL1s with same meaning but different syntax: • Predicate argument structure • Sentence plan: main and embedded clauses

  5. Outline • Goals of IAMTC • IL0: A deep syntactic dependency representation • How and why it is different from other dependency representations • Examples: • Copula • Future tense • Causative • Light verbs • Comparison to other work • Prague tectogrammatical representation • PropBank

  6. Example of IL0 Sheikh Mohammed, who is also the Defense Minister of the United Arab Emirates, announced at the inauguration ceremony that “we want to make Dubai a new trading center” TrEd, Pajas, 1998

  7. IL0 Design: Reduce cross-linguistic Differences • Retain content words • Replace function words with syntactic features • Tense, definiteness, etc. • Retain information about the event and participants • Neutralize information about the organization of the information or how it is communicated

  8. IL0 Features • Parts of Speech • Verb, noun, proper noun, adjective, adverb, preposition, conjunction, determiner, aux (modal), punctuation, symbols, speech sounds, misc • Features of Nouns • Number, Definiteness • Features of Verbs • Progressive, Perfective, Tense, Mood

  9. No auxiliary verbs No determiners Add empty arguments I want ___ to go “Undo” passives and clefts Copular sentences are headed by the predicate The umbrella is red Retain causative markers and light verbs only if they affect the argument structure of the sentence or have a literal meaning Includes syntactic roles (Subj, Obj, IndObj, Mod) Summary of IL0

  10. Annotations done so far • Annotations of 6 English Texts • Each translated from a different source language • Two translations of each text • 10 – 12 annotators for each text • Approximately 144 annotated texts total

  11. IL0 Annotation Manuals • English • Arabic • French • Hindi • Japanese • Korean • Spanish

  12. Outline • Goals of IAMTC • IL0: A deep syntactic dependency representation • How and why it is different from other dependency representations • Examples: • Copula • Future tense • Causative • Light verbs • Comparison to other work • Prague tectogrammatical representation • PropBank

  13. Copula • English: overt copula • The umbrella was red. • Arabic: overt copula in past tense • kAnat AlmiZl~apu HamrA’F • Japanese: optional copula (desu) • Kasa wa akai.

  14. IL0 for Copula Sentences

  15. IL1 for Copula Sentence

  16. Future Tense Spanish: Llegará Juan English: Juan will arrive

  17. Causative Sentences in English, Japanese, and Arabic • English: main clause and embedded clause I made [the cat eat the fish] • Japanese: productive causative morpheme Watashi-wa neko-ni sakana-wo tabe-sase-ta I TOP cat DAT fish ACC eat CAUSE-PAST • Arabic: lexical causatives >ak~altu AlqiT~apa Alsamakpa Eat-CAUSE cat.DEF.ACC fish.DEF.ACC

  18. Make[V,past] SUBJ I[N] OBJ eat[V] SUBJ cat[N,sg,def] OBJ fish[N,sg,def] IL0 for causative sentences in English, Japanese, and Arabic >ak~al[V,cause,past] SUBJ Empty[N] IOBJ cat[N,sg,def] OBJ fish[N,sg,def] sase[V,past] Reduce differences between languages but only to the extent allowed by the syntax, morphology, and lexical items OBJ tabe[V] SUBJ watashi[N] OBJ sakana[N,sg,def] SUBJ neko[N,sg,def]

  19. Hindi Light Verbs Hum santre kha gaye We oranges eat went “We ate oranges”

  20. Hindi Light Verbs Ram santra kha-kar jayega Ram orange eat-then go “Ram will eat the orange and left”

  21. Outline • Goals of IAMTC • IL0: A deep syntactic dependency representation • Examples: • Copula • Future tense • Causative • Light verbs • Comparison to other work • Prague tectogrammatical representation • PropBank

  22. Comparison to other work • Compared to annotation projects • IAMTC is an interlingua project • IAMTC annotates multi-lingual, multi-parallel texts in order to reconcile differences between languages • Compared to interlingua design projects • IAMTC is a corpus driven project • IAMTC is an annotation project

  23. Comparison to Tectogrammatical Representation • IL0 has only syntactic relation labels • In IL0: all adjuncts are marked “adj” • IL0 retains strongly governed prepositions • give X to Y • IL0: prepositions are heads • But there is some flexibility for each language to decide

  24. Comparison to PropBank • IAMTC is more syntactic • Thematic paraphrases: same arguments filling the same roles for the same verb • Load hay on truck/load truck with hay • Same in PropBank • Different in IL0

  25. End

  26. Extra Slides

  27. IL0 Differences Between Languages • Morphological features on nodes different between languages • No raising verbs in Arabic, Hindi, Japanese, Korean; raising verbs have no subject John seems to like beans • Serial verbs in Hindi: additional verb with only aspectual meaning (?) treated as dependent on main verb hum santre kha gaye we oranges eat went `We ate the oranges’

  28. IL0 Differences Between Languages (2) • Morphological causatives in Japanese: causative morpheme is head 私は (猫に 魚を 食べ-) -させた 1sg-TOP (cat-DAT fish-OBJ eat-) -CAUSE-PAST I made the cat eat the fish • Prepositions as heads in all our languages, but probably not others (Czech)

  29. Summary: What is Normalized Where? • Syntactic variation: IL0 • The gangster killed at least 3 innocent bystanders • At least 3 innocent bystanders were killed by the gangster • Lexical synonymy: IL1 • The toddler sobbed, and he attempted to console her • The baby wailed, and he tried to comfort her • Diathesis alternation: IL1 (caveat) • The men loaded hay into the trucks • The men loaded the trucks with hey

  30. Summary: What is Normalized Where? • Part-of-speech class and derivational morpholgy: IL1/2 • I was surprised that he destroyed the old house • I was surprised by his destruction of the old house • Possession: IL1 • Dubais’s oil, oil of Dubai • Clause combination: IL2 • This is Joe’s new car, which he bought in New York • This is Joe’s new car. He bought it in New York

  31. Summary: What is Normalized Where? Different argument realizations: IL1/2 • Bob enjoys playing with his kids • Playing with his kids pleases Bob • Noun-noun compounds: IL2 • She loves velvet dresses • She loves dresses made of velvet • Head switching: IL2 • Mike Mussina excels at pitching • Mike Mussina pitches well • Mike Mussina is a good pitcher

  32. Summary: What is Normalized Where? • Overlapping meanings:IL2 • Lindbergh flew across the Atlantic Ocean • Lindbergh crossed the Atlantic Ocean by plane • Locus of Negation: IL2 • I have not bought any cheese • I have bought no cheese

  33. Summary: What is Normalized Where? • Light verbs: IL2 • conduct a tightening = tighten • witness a growth rate of = grow by • Direct and indirect discourse: IL2 • said “X”vs. said that X

  34. Not Normalized at IL0, IL1, nor IL2 • Logical inferences • He’s smarter than everybody else • He’s the smartest one • Real-World Inference • The tight end caught the ball in the end zone • The tight end scored a touchdown • Different syntactic sentence types, same pragmatic meaning • Who composed the Brandenburg Concertos? • Tell me who composed the Brandenburg Concertos

  35. Not Normalized at IL0, IL1, nor IL2 • Viewpoint variation • The U.S.-led invasion/liberation/occupation of Iraq • He is getting in the way vs. He is only trying to help

  36. Differences from other projects • Eurotra, Euro WordNet, UNL • Share the goal of defining an interlingua • Don’t share the goal of producing an annotated corpus • ParGram • Grammars for several languages developed in close consultation • Based on the assumption of universal grammar • Not an annotation project • Not corpus based

  37. Starting on January 1 of next year, SK Telecomsubscribers can switch to less expensive LG Telecom or KTF. … The Subscribers cannot switch again toanother provider for the first 3 months, but they can cancel the switch in 14 days if they are not satisfied with services like voice quality. Starting January 1st of next year customersof SK Telecom can changetheir service company to LG Telecom or KTF … Once a service company swap has been made, customers are not allowed to change companies again within the first three months, although they can cancel the change anytimewithin 14 days if problems such aspoorcall quality are experienced. Getting at Meaning(Two translations of Korean original text)

  38. Starting on January 1 of next year, SK Telecomsubscribers can switch to less expensive LG Telecom or KTF. … The Subscribers cannot switch again toanother provider for the first 3 months, but they can cancel the switch in 14 days if they are not satisfied with services like voice quality. Starting January 1st of next year customersof SK Telecom can changetheir service company to LG Telecom or KTF … Once a service company swap has been made, customers are not allowed to change companies again within the first three months, although they can cancel the change anytimewithin 14 days if problems such aspoorcall quality are experienced. Getting at Meaning(Two translations of Korean original text) black: same words, same meaning

  39. Starting on January 1 of next year, SK Telecomsubscribers can switch to less expensive LG Telecom or KTF. … The Subscribers cannot switch again toanother provider for the first 3 months, but they can cancel the switch in 14 days if they are not satisfied with services like voice quality. Starting January 1st of next year customersof SK Telecom can changetheir service company to LG Telecom or KTF … Once a service company swap has been made, customers are not allowed to change companies again within the first three months, although they can cancel the change anytimewithin 14 days if problems such aspoorcall quality are experienced. Getting at Meaning(Two translations of Korean original text) green: small syntactic differences

  40. Starting on January 1 of next year, SK Telecomsubscribers can switch to less expensive LG Telecom or KTF. … The Subscribers cannot switch again toanother provider for the first 3 months, but they can cancel the switch in 14 days if they are not satisfied with services like voice quality. Starting January 1st of next year customersof SK Telecom can changetheir service company to LG Telecom or KTF … Once a service company swap has been made, customers are not allowed to change companies again within the first three months, although they can cancel the change anytimewithin 14 days if problems such aspoorcall quality are experienced. Getting at Meaning(Two translations of Korean original text) blue: lexical differences

  41. Starting on January 1 of next year, SK Telecomsubscribers can switch to less expensive LG Telecom or KTF. … The Subscribers cannot switch again toanother provider for the first 3 months, but they can cancel the switch in 14 days if they are not satisfied with services like voice quality. Starting January 1st of next year customersof SK Telecom can changetheir service company to LG Telecom or KTF … Once a service company swap has been made, customers are not allowed to change companies again within the first three months, although they can cancel the change anytimewithin 14 days if problems such aspoorcall quality are experienced. Getting at Meaning(Two translations of Korean original text) red: not contained in other text

  42. Starting on January 1 of next year, SK Telecomsubscribers can switch to less expensive LG Telecom or KTF. … The Subscribers cannot switch again toanother provider for the first 3 months, but they can cancel the switch in 14 days if they are not satisfied with services like voice quality. Starting January 1st of next year customersof SK Telecom can changetheir service company to LG Telecom or KTF … Once a service company swap has been made, customers are not allowed to change companies again within the first three months, although they can cancel the change anytimewithin 14 days if problems such aspoorcall quality are experienced. Getting at Meaning(Two translations of Korean original text) purple: more complex relations