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  1. Classroom Instruction that works Presenter: Mark Foseid Boise ID February 24, 2006

  2. ABOUT COMPLEX REASONING PROCESSES

  3. IDENTIFYING SIMILARITIES AND DIFFERENCES • Comparison Reasoning • Classifying Reasoning • Abstract Reasoning (metaphors, analogies) CUES, QUESTIONS, AND ADVANCED ORGANIZERS • Inductive Reasoning • Deductive Reasoning • Constructing Support Reasoning • Analyzing Perspectives Reasoning • Analyzing Errors Reasoning GENERATING AND TESTING HYPOTHESES • Decision Making Reasoning • Problem Solving Reasoning • Invention Reasoning • Experimental Inquiry Reasoning • Investigation Reasoning • Systems Analysis Reasoning

  4. IDENTIFYING SIMILARITIES & DIFFERENCES Looking at similarities and differences among items (comparing), among lists of items (classifying), among chunks of information (abstracting). Comparison Reasoning Classifying Reasoning Abstract Reasoning (metaphors, analogies)

  5. CUES, QUESTIONS, ADVANCED ORGANIZERS Drawing conclusions and making predictions using what we know Inductive Reasoning Deductive Reasoning Generating and testing arguments and assertions Constructing Support Reasoning Analyzing Perspectives Reasoning Analyzing Errors Reasoning

  6. GENERATING AND TESTING HYPOTHESES Taking an action when faced with a dilemma or need Decision Making Reasoning Problem Solving Reasoning Invention Reasoning Clarifying or explaining: - phenomena observed; - contradictions or confusions; - relationships among parts Experimental Inquiry Reasoning Investigation Reasoning Systems Analysis Reasoning

  7. Stimulus Questions to Help You Choose Reasoning Process

  8. Stimulus Questions to Help You Choose Reasoning Process

  9. Stimulus Questions to Help You Choose Reasoning Process

  10. Stimulus Questions to Help You Choose Reasoning Process

  11. “We learn by doing if we reflect on what we have done” John Dewey • Organization: • Brief introduction to the process • A model for the process “Steps” • Graphic representation of the process • Examples of Classroom Activities • Rubric to assess the students use of the process

  12. c Comparing Classifying Analogy Metaphor : : ?

  13. Identifying Similarities and Differences Generalizations from the research: • Giving students with explicitguidance in identifying similarities and differences enhances their understanding of and ability to use knowledge. • Asking students to independently identify similarities and differences enhances their understanding of and ability to use knowledge. • Using graphic or symbolic forms to represent similarities and differences enhances student understanding of and ability to use knowledge. • Can be accomplished in a variety of ways and is a highly robust activity.

  14. Identifying Similarities and Differences Generalizations from the research: Identifying Similarities and Differences can be accomplished in a variety of ways:

  15. Mass and Weight are similar because they both: Involve the amount of matter in an object. As Mass increases, so does weight Are measurable. Mass= (g.), Weight = (N) Have a relationship with gravity. Mass and Weight are different because Mass is the amount of matter…doesn’t change Weight is gravitational pull on an object…can change

  16. Food eaten during frontier days Food eaten today Characteristic _______________ Variety Preservatives Preparation

  17. Rubric for Comparing 4 The student uses important, as well as some less obvious, characteristics to compare the items. The student accurately identifies the similarities and differences and explains his conclusions in a way that shows a complete and detailed understanding of the items. The student uses important characteristics to compare the items. The student accurately identifies the similarities and differences and explains his conclusions. 3

  18. Rubric for Comparing 2 The student uses characteristics to compare the items, but not the most important characteristics. The student’s comparison and conclusions show some misconceptions about the items. The student uses insignificant characteristics to compare the items. The student’s comparison and conclusions show many misconceptions that indicate the student does not understand the items. 1

  19. Key Points: Comparing • Because the process of comparing can • be overused, it is important to ask if it is the best process to use to help students extend and refine the identified content knowledge. • Students need extensive modeling, • practice, and feedback in order to become skilled at identifying meaningful and interesting characteristics to use in comparison tasks. • Students should understand that the • purpose of doing a comparison task is to extend and refine knowledge. A questions such as, “What did you discover?” helps to reinforce this understanding.

  20. The STEPSto Classifying Reasoning Grouping items into definable categories on the basis of their attributes • 1. Identify the items you want to classify. • 2. Select what seems to be an important item and identify other items like it based on their attributes. • 3. State the rule that describes membership in this category. • 4. Select another item and identify others that are like it. • 5. State the rule that describes membership in this category. • Repeat the previous two steps until all items are classified and • each category has a rule that describes it. • 7. If necessary, combine categories or split them into smaller categories and state the rules for those categories.

  21. Rubric for Classifying 4 The student organizes the items into meaningful categories and thoroughly describes the defining characteristics of each category. The student provides insightful conclusions about the classification. 3 The student organizes the items into meaningful categories and describes the defining characteristics of each category.

  22. Rubric for Classifying 2 The student organizes the items into categories that are not very meaningful, but addresses some of the important characteristics of the items. 1 The student organizes the items into categories that do not make sense or are unimportant. A Handbook for Classroom Instruction That Works p. 28

  23. Key Points: Classifying • Categories should be related to one another or parallel. • It is important to focus on attributes that are important and meaningful to the content. • Students must understand the defining characteristics of the categories well enough to justify placement of the items – which gets more difficult with complex content. 4. Having students classify and then reclassify is a key to helping them notice unique distinctions and connections that they might not have noticed had they classified the items only once.

  24. ANALOGIES Creating analogies is the process of identifying relationships between pairs of concepts-in other words, identifying relationships between relationships. Like metaphors, analogies help us to see how seemingly dissimilar things are similar, increasing our understanding of new information.

  25. Identifying Similarities and Differences TYPES OF RELATIONSHIPS COMMON TO ANALOGIES Part to Whole Change Function Quantity/Size Pkt. 1.2 Similar Concepts Dissimilar Concepts Class Membership Class Name or Class Member

  26. Typically, analogical thinking takes on the form A:B:: C:D, read as, “A is to B as C is to D” (Sternberg, 1977) For Example: Hot:cold::night:day (“hot is to cold as night is to day”) cold and day are opposites of hot and night, respectively. Carpenter:hammer:: artist:brush (“carpernter is to hammer as artist is to brush”) hammer and brush are tools used by a carpenter and an artist, respectfully. Pkt. 1.3

  27. Steps to teaching analogies: 1. Present students with structured examples of analogies.For example, a teacher might introduce the format for analogies by providing students with content-area examples like the following: Thermometer is to temperature as Odometer is to mileage Or Willy Loman is to tragedy as Falstaff is to comedy Ask students to explain how the the relationship between A and B is similar to that between C and D. Pkt.2.1

  28. 2. Present students with open-ended analogies. For example, provide students with an incomplete analogy like the one below; Evaporation:water As Condensation: ( ) Pkt.2.2

  29. 3. Present students with a graphic organizer for analogies: For example: is to Relationship:_____________ As is to (App.2/24, p6)(pkt2.3)

  30. For example:Graphic organizer to help students understand the nature of analogies hammer is to carpenter carpenter Relationship:tools used frequently by given professionals As is to painter Brush Painter

  31. 4. Present students with analogy problems. • For example: • Accelerate:Decelerate::Amicable:___________ • A. Friendly • B. Cooperative • C. Hostile • Enemy • Pkt3.1

  32. COMMON ANALOGY RELATIONSHIPS Similar Concepts Adjacent concepts are synonyms or similar in meaning. Rumor:gossip::energize:__________ demoralize support invigorate Dissimilar Concepts Adjacent concepts are antonyms or dissimilar in meaning. Happy:sad::tall:________ short long pkt3.2 high

  33. COMMON ANALOGY RELATIONSHIPS Class Membership Adjacent concepts belong to the same class or category. Otter:turtle::red:_________ cat purple mood Class Name and Class Member One element in a set is a class name, the other is a member of the class Ballpoint:pen::beetle:_______ plant winter Pkt.3.3 insect

  34. Part to Whole One element in a set is a part of the other element in the set. blade:fan::sleeve:__________ pants shirt arm Change One element in a set turns into the other element. Maggot:fly::seed:__________ plant worm dirt pkt.4.1

  35. Function One element in a set performs a function on or for another. golfer:club::_____________: student homework book tutor Quantity/Size The two elements in the set are comparable in terms of quantity or size. Mountain:anthill::____________:mouse elephant ant gerbil pkt.4.2

  36. Identifying Similarities and Differences Graphic Organizer for the Abstract Reasoning in Analogies is to Relationship: as is to (APP 43.10)

  37. Identifying Similarities and Differences Graphic Organizer for the Abstract Reasoning in Analogies thermometer is to temperature Relationship: Measure incremental changes in something as odometer is to distance

  38. LEVERS A lever is a bar that is free to move about a point called afulcrum. The force applied to one end of a lever is called the effort force. The force that is overcome at the other end is called the resistance force. A lever has two arms. The effort arm is the distance from the effort force to the fulcrum. Theresistance arm is the distance from the resistance force to the fulcrum. Principles of Science, Heimler,Neal,

  39. Solving Analogy Problems as David Hyerle’s Bridge Map (App. 2/24, p7)(pkt.4.3)

  40. Solving Analogy Problems

  41. Solving Analogy Problems

  42. Solving Analogy Problems document book as backpack portfolio …is carried in …relating factor batter compound as elements ingredients …a new substance made up of …relating factor

  43. Solving Analogy Problems Offensive Line Cell membrane as Cell Football team …only lets certain things pass through …relating factor Earthquake Tsunami as Wave Tremor ……….is an extreme example of …relating factor

  44. Solving Analogy Problems tongue eye as see ? …is used to …relating factor ? walk as run ? …an acceleration or amplification …relating factor

  45. Solving Analogy Problems document book as backpack portfolio …is carried in …relating factor as as as …relating factor YOU CREATE ONE! SHARE WITH A PARTNER

  46. Steps to the Analogy Process Example: Man : Boy :: king: _________ • Identify relationships between the first two elements in the first set (man and boy). • Identify which element is the first set (man) is most closely related to the single element in the second set (king). • Identify which of the completion choices would make the second set of elements have the same relationship as the first set.

  47. Identifying Similarities and Differences Analogies You do some! Be sure to describe the relationship! • Spring : Ring :: Coil : (rope, cowl, loop, stretch) • Gutenberg : (broadcasting, theology, genetics, printing) :: Marconi : Radio • Wisdom : (science, sage, goodness, educator) :: Skill : Virtuoso • Dive : (descend, water, float, sink) :: Depth : Surface • Surname : Pseudonym :: Clemens : (Samuel, Eliot, Finn, Twain) • Elbow : Nerve :: Hinge : (lever, electricity, fulcrum, wire • Homophone : (paradigm, antonym, synonym, acronym) :: Sound : Meaning • (APP. 2/24, p8)

  48. Identifying Similarities and Differences Analogies You do some - more! • Vinegar : (apple, oil, tea, lemon) :: Acetic : Citric • Candide : Voltaire :: (Pirandello, Carmen, Quixote, Lazarillo) : Cervantes • Salk: Polo :: (Pasteur, Sabin, Lister, Currie) : Rabies • Wagon: Limousine :: (passenger, vehicle, buckboard, teamster) : Chauffeur • Light : Snack :: (consume, simple, hearty, gobble) : Feast • Mason : (jar, trowel, brick, divider) :: Draftsman : Compass • Common : (combined, plain, stock, crossing) :: Intersection : Union • (festival, week, moon, calendar) : Monday :: Holy : Holiday (APP. 2/24, p9))

  49. Identifying Similarities and Differences Analogies Answers! • A spring forms or has the shape of a coil, and a ring forms a loop • Marconi is recognized as the inventor of radio, and Gutenberg is recognized as the inventor of movable type for printing • A sage posses an extraordinary degree of wisdom; a virtuoso possesses an extraordinary degree of skill • To dive is to descend into the water’s depth; to float is to stay on the surface of the water • Mark Twain’s real name was Samuel Clemens; his real surname Clemens, but he used Twain as a pseudonym • The elbow of an arm functions similar to a hinge on a door or gate, a nerve is a cordlike fiber that functions in the nervous system similar to a wire in an electrical system • Words that have the same sound are called homophones; words that have the same meaning are called synonyms • Vinegar contains acetic acid; a lemon contains citric acid