70-293: MCSE Manual for Arranging a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 System Part 2: TCP/IP Design - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

70 293 mcse guide to planning a microsoft windows server 2003 network chapter 2 tcp ip architecture l.
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
70-293: MCSE Manual for Arranging a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 System Part 2: TCP/IP Design PowerPoint Presentation
70-293: MCSE Manual for Arranging a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 System Part 2: TCP/IP Design

play fullscreen
1 / 55
Download
Download Presentation

70-293: MCSE Manual for Arranging a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 System Part 2: TCP/IP Design

Presentation Transcript

  1. 70-293: MCSE Guide to Planning a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 NetworkChapter 2: TCP/IP Architecture

  2. Objectives • Understand TCP/IP addressing • Describe the overall architecture of TCP/IP • Describe Application layer protocols • Discuss Transport layer protocols • Understand the role of various Internet layer protocols, including IP,ICMP, and ARP • Understand Network Interface layer protocols 70-293: MCSE Guide to Planning a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Network

  3. Introduction To TCP/IP • Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) • Most commonly used network protocol suite today • Wide vendor support • Open protocol • Provides access to Internet services • Windows Server 2003 • Can use several protocols • Many of its main features require the use of TCP/IP 70-293: MCSE Guide to Planning a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Network

  4. Activity 2-1: Repairing a Network Connection • The purpose of this activity is to repair a connection that has a corrupt TCP/IP configuration 70-293: MCSE Guide to Planning a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Network

  5. IP Addresses • An IP address, like a mailing address for a house, is unique • An IP addresses has four numbers, each called an octet, that are separated by periods • Each octet in an IP address represents eight bits of information • A full IP address of four octets is 32 bits long 70-293: MCSE Guide to Planning a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Network

  6. IP Addresses (continued) • An example of an IP address is 192.168.5.66 • An IP address is composed of two parts: the network ID and the host ID • The network ID represents the network on which the computer is located • The host ID represents the individual computer on a network 70-293: MCSE Guide to Planning a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Network

  7. Subnet Masks • A subnet mask defines which part of its IP address is the network ID and which part is the host ID • Subnet masks are composed of four octets just like an IP address • Wherever there is a 255 in the subnet mask, that octet is part of the network ID • Wherever there is a 0 in the subnet mask, that octet is part of the host ID 70-293: MCSE Guide to Planning a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Network

  8. Subnet Masks (continued) • A computer uses its subnet mask to determine • Which network it is on • Whether other computers are on the same network or a different network • If two computers on the same network are communicating, then they can deliver packets directly to each other • If two computers are on different networks, they must use a router to communicate 70-293: MCSE Guide to Planning a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Network

  9. Subnet Masks (continued) 70-293: MCSE Guide to Planning a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Network

  10. Default Gateway • Default gateway is another term for router • If a computer does not know how to deliver a packet, it gives the packet to the default gateway to deliver • Routers can distinguish multiple networks and how to move packets between them • Routers can also figure out the best path to use to move a packet between different networks 70-293: MCSE Guide to Planning a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Network

  11. Activity 2-2: Viewing IP Address Configuration • The purpose of this activity is to view the current IP address settings on a server 70-293: MCSE Guide to Planning a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Network

  12. IP Address Classes • IP addresses are divided into classes: A-E • IP address classes can be identified by the first octet • Class A addresses use eight bits for the network ID and 24 bits for the host ID • Class A networks are only assigned to very large companies and Internet providers • Class B addresses use 16 bits for the network ID and 16 bits for the host ID • Class B networks are assigned to many larger organizations, such as governments, universities, and companies with several thousand users 70-293: MCSE Guide to Planning a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Network

  13. IP Address Classes (continued) • Class C addresses use 24 bits for the network ID and eight bits for the host ID • Class C networks have a relatively small number of hosts and are suited only to smaller organizations • Class D addresses are not divided into networks and they cannot be assigned to computers as IP addresses • Class D addresses are used for multicasting • Class E addresses are considered experimental and are not used 70-293: MCSE Guide to Planning a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Network

  14. IP Address Classes (continued) 70-293: MCSE Guide to Planning a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Network

  15. Classless Inter-domain Routing • Classless interdomain routing (CIDR) makes Internet routing and assignment of IP addresses more efficient • CIDR does not use the default subnet masks for routing. Instead, the subnet mask must be defined for each network 70-293: MCSE Guide to Planning a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Network

  16. Classless Inter-domain Routing (continued) • Definable subnet mask is more flexible and efficient • CIDR reduces the number of routing table entries that Internet backbone routers must hold • A single routing table entry can replace hundreds or thousands of entries for Class C networks 70-293: MCSE Guide to Planning a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Network

  17. Reserved Addresses • Reserved addresses are a number of IP addresses and IP networks that are reserved for special purposes and either cannot be assigned to hosts or cannot be used on the Internet 70-293: MCSE Guide to Planning a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Network

  18. DNS • Domain Name System (DNS) is used to: • resolve host names to IP addresses • find domain controllers • find e-mail servers • DNS is essential for Active Directory to work properly 70-293: MCSE Guide to Planning a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Network

  19. WINS • Windows Internet Naming Service (WINS) is used to: • resolve NetBIOS names to IP addresses • stores information about services such as domain controllers • Provide backward compatibility with Windows NT and Windows 9x 70-293: MCSE Guide to Planning a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Network

  20. DHCP • Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) is an automated mechanism to assign IP addresses to clients • Automating this process avoids the problem of records being entered incorrectly • If a change needs to be made for the IP addressing information, you can simply change the information in the DHCP server 70-293: MCSE Guide to Planning a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Network

  21. Activity 2-3:Using IPCONFIG to View IP Configuration • The purpose of this activity is to view the current IP settings using the IPCONFIG utility 70-293: MCSE Guide to Planning a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Network

  22. Activity 2-4: Configuring an Alternative IP Configuration • The purpose of this activity is to configure alternative IP address information to be used when a DHCP server is unavailable 70-293: MCSE Guide to Planning a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Network

  23. TCP/IP Architecture Overview • The TCP/IP model can be broken down into four layers: • Application • Transport • Internet • Network Interface • Application layer provides access to network resources • It defines rules, commands, and procedures for client to talk to a service running on a server 70-293: MCSE Guide to Planning a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Network

  24. TCP/IP Architecture Overview (continued) • Transport layer is responsible for preparing data to be transported across the network • Internet layer is responsible for logical addressing and routing • Network Interface layer consists of the network card driver and the network card itself 70-293: MCSE Guide to Planning a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Network

  25. Application Layer Protocols • There are many Application layer protocols, each of which is associated with a client application and service • HTTP • FTP • TELNET • SMTP • POP3 • IMAP4 70-293: MCSE Guide to Planning a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Network

  26. HTTP • Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) is the most common protocol used on the Internet today • HTTP defines the commands that Web browsers can send and how Web servers are capable of responding 70-293: MCSE Guide to Planning a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Network

  27. FTP • File Transfer Protocol (FTP) is file-sharing protocol • FTP is implemented in stand-alone FTP clients as well as in Web browsers • It is safe to say that most FTP users today are using Web browsers 70-293: MCSE Guide to Planning a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Network

  28. Activity 2-5: Using FTP to Download a File • The purpose of this activity is to use FTP to download a utility 70-293: MCSE Guide to Planning a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Network

  29. TELNET • Telnet is a terminal emulation protocol that is primarily used to connect remotely to UNIX and Linux Systems • The Telnet protocol specifies how a telnet server and telnet client communicate 70-293: MCSE Guide to Planning a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Network

  30. SMTP • Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) is used to send and receive e-mail messages between e-mail servers that are communicating • It is used by e-mail client software, such as Outlook Express, to send messages to the server • SMTP is never used to retrieve e-mail from a server when you are reading it • Other protocols control the reading of e-mail messages 70-293: MCSE Guide to Planning a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Network

  31. Activity 2-6: Using Telnet to Verify SMTP • The purpose of this activity is to use Telnet to verify the functionality of an SMTP server 70-293: MCSE Guide to Planning a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Network

  32. POP3 • Post Office Protocol version 3 (POP3) is the most common protocol used for reading e-mail messages • This protocol has commands to download messages and delete messages from the mail server • POP3 does not support sending messages • POP3 supports only a single inbox and does not support multiple folders for storage on the server 70-293: MCSE Guide to Planning a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Network

  33. IMAP4 • Internet Message Access Protocol version 4 (IMAP4) is another common protocol used to read e-mail messages • IMAP4 can download message headers only and allow you to choose which messages to download • IMAP4 allows for multiple folders on the server side to store messages 70-293: MCSE Guide to Planning a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Network

  34. Transport Layer Protocols • Transport layer protocols are responsible for getting data ready to move across the network • The most common task performed by Transport layer protocols is breaking entire messages down into packets • Transport layer protocols use port numbers • Each Transport layer protocol has its own set of ports 70-293: MCSE Guide to Planning a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Network

  35. Transport Layer Protocols (continued) • When a packet is addressed to a particular port, the Transport layer protocol knows to which service to deliver the packet • The combination of an IP address and port number is referred to as a socket 70-293: MCSE Guide to Planning a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Network

  36. Transport Layer Protocols (continued) • A port number is like an apartment number for the delivery of mail • Network ID of the IP address ensures packet is delivered to the correct street (network) • Host ID ensures packet is delivered to the correct building (host) • Transport layer protocol and port number ensure packet is delivered to the proper apartment (service) 70-293: MCSE Guide to Planning a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Network

  37. Activity 2-7: Using Port Numbers • The purpose of this activity is to Connect to resources using TCP and UDP port numbers 70-293: MCSE Guide to Planning a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Network

  38. TCP • Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) is the most commonly used Transport layer protocol • TCP is connection-oriented and reliable • Connection-oriented means that TCP creates and verifies a connection with a remote host before sending information • Verifies that the remote host exists and is willing to communicate before starting the conversation • TCP is the Transport layer protocol used for most Internet services 70-293: MCSE Guide to Planning a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Network

  39. Activity 2-8: Installing Network Monitor • The purpose of this activity is to install Network Monitor to enable packet capturing 70-293: MCSE Guide to Planning a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Network

  40. Activity 2-9: Viewing a TCP Connection in Network Monitor • The purpose of this activity is to capture and view TCP connection packets in Network Monitor 70-293: MCSE Guide to Planning a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Network

  41. UDP • User Datagram Protocol (UDP) • Not as commonly used as TCP • Used for different services • Connectionless and unreliable • UDP is the appropriate if • Unconcerned about missing packets • Want to implement reliability in a special way • Streaming audio and video are in this category 70-293: MCSE Guide to Planning a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Network

  42. Activity 2-10: Capturing UDP Packets in Network Monitor • The purpose of this activity is to capture and view UDP packets in Network Monitor 70-293: MCSE Guide to Planning a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Network

  43. TCP versus UDP • TCP is connection-oriented and reliable • Like registered mail • UDP is connectionless and unreliable • Like sending a message split on several postcards and assuming that the receiver will be able to put the message together 70-293: MCSE Guide to Planning a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Network

  44. Internet Layer Protocols • Internet layer protocols are responsible for all tasks related to logical addressing • An IP address is a logical address • Any protocol that is aware of other networks exists at this layer • Each Internet layer protocol is very specialized • They include: IP, RIP and OSPF, ICMP, IGMP, and ARP 70-293: MCSE Guide to Planning a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Network

  45. IP • Internet Protocol (IP) is responsible for the logical addressing of each packet created by the Transport layer • As each packet is built, IP adds the source and destination IP address to the packet 70-293: MCSE Guide to Planning a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Network

  46. RIP and OSPF • Routing Information Protocol (RIP) and Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) are both routing protocols • They are responsible for defining how paths are chosen through the internetwork from one computer to another • They also define how routers can share information about the networks of which they are aware 70-293: MCSE Guide to Planning a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Network

  47. ICMP • Internet Control Messaging Protocol (ICMP) is used to send IP error and control messages between routers and hosts • The most common use of ICMP is the ping utility 70-293: MCSE Guide to Planning a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Network

  48. Activity 2-11: Testing Host Functionality • The purpose of this activity is to test the functionality of a host using the ping command 70-293: MCSE Guide to Planning a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Network

  49. Activity 2-12: Viewing TTL • The purpose of this activity is to view the TTL of a ping packet 70-293: MCSE Guide to Planning a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Network

  50. IGMP • Internet Group Management Protocol (IGMP) is used for the management of multicast groups • Hosts use IGMP to inform routers of their membership in multicast groups • Routers use IGMP to announce that their networks have members in particular multicast groups • The use of IGMP allows multicast packets to be distributed only to routers that have interested hosts connected 70-293: MCSE Guide to Planning a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Network