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"Investigating Socrates"

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  1. "Investigating Socrates"

  2. “It appears there is a narrow path which brings us safely to our journeys end with reason as our guide. As long as we have a body and this evil can mingle with our soul we shall never completely attain what we desire, namely truth. For the body is forever wasting our time with its demands. When it is ill it hinders us in our pursuit of real being. It fills us with passions, desires, fears, and all kinds of imaginings and foolishness. It is always preventing us from thinking properly.” -- Socrates

  3. Socrates was frustrated with religion.

  4. His Frustration

  5. Socrates’ Pursuit: He Wanted to Find Truth. Pythagoras 582 - 500 B.C. Study of Music, Math, Numbers

  6. His Method: Dialectic Reasoning INTERROGATION

  7. “Socrates used question-and-answer method in his philosophical pursuit. He believed that truth was inborn in all of us and by asking questions, he acted as a midwife to give birth to the ideas that men knew from a previous existences. The right question would recall what he already knows. He believed that even a uneducated slave when asked the right question could expound on Euclidian geometry.” From Plato’s Meno

  8. Reason · Revelation · Experience

  9. Reason Revelation Experience

  10. Socrates realized that “The way we see the world determines the way we live.”

  11. The View of Karl Marx Truth/Reality: Man is good, defines truth, progress through societal evolution.

  12. The View of Karl Marx Theology Man is innately good & accountable to himself. Evil is caused by outside institutions (family/religion) holding back his progress. Truth/Reality (Man defines truth)

  13. The View of Karl Marx Sociology The State must abolish outdated institutions (family, religion) to ensure the development of a free society. Theology (Man accountable to self) Truth/Reality (Man is good, defines truth)

  14. The View of Karl Marx Ethics Determined by State. If ethics help the cause of State, then it’s morally good. Whatever hinders its advance in social evolution is morally evil. Sociology (State abolishes institutions) Theology (Man accountable to self) Truth/Reality (Man is good, defines truth)

  15. The View of Karl Marx Law State is given sovereignty (there’s no higher power.) As man is the final word in ethics, the State is the only source for legal "truth." Ethics (Man decides, must advance state.) Sociology (State abolishes institutions) Theology (Man accountable to self) Truth/Reality (Man is good, defines truth)

  16. The View of Karl Marx Economics Private property abolished: man will no longer oppress fellow man to protect his private property. Individuals will see needs fulfilled through shared ownership (communism.) Law (State is source for "truth.“) Ethics (Man decides, must advance state.) Sociology (State abolishes institutions) Theology (Man accountable to self) Truth/Reality (Man is good, defines truth)

  17. The View of Karl Marx Politics Globalism. Working class will establish a worldwide "dictatorship of proletariat,” stepping forward in evolution. Economics (Socialism/Communism.) Law (State is source for "truth.“) Ethics (Man decides, must advance state.) Sociology (State abolishes institutions) Theology (Man accountable to self) Truth/Reality (Man is good, defines truth)

  18. The View of Jesus Christ Politics (Evolution; Proletariat Rule.) Economics (Socialism/Communism.) Law (State is source for "truth.“) Ethics (Man decides, must advance state.) Sociology (State abolishes institutions) Theology (Man accountable to self) Truth/Reality (Man is good, defines truth)

  19. The View of Jesus Christ Truth/Reality Man is good and evil. Truth is anchored in the ultimate reality of a loving God. Politics (Evolution; Proletariat Rule.) Economics (Socialism/Communism.) Law (State is source for "truth.“) Ethics (Man decides, must advance state.) Sociology (State abolishes institutions) Theology (Man accountable to self) Truth/Reality (Man is good, defines truth)

  20. The View of Jesus Christ Theology Humans are made in God’s image, but are intrinsically capable of evil. We are loved by, created by, and accountable to God. Politics (Evolution; Proletariat Rule.) Economics (Socialism/Communism.) Law (State is source for "truth.“) Ethics (Man decides, must advance state.) Sociology (State abolishes institutions) Theology (Man accountable to self) Truth/Reality (Man is good, defines truth)

  21. The View of Jesus Christ Sociology The individual and social order are both important. God-ordained institutions (family, church, state) should teach love, respect, discipline -- virtues anchored in the nature of God. Progress teaches us how to use freedom to do what is right. Politics (Evolution; Proletariat Rule.) Economics (Socialism/Communism.) Law (State is source for "truth.“) Ethics (Man decides, must advance state.) Sociology (State abolishes institutions) Theology (Man accountable to self) Truth/Reality (Man is good, defines truth)

  22. The View of Jesus Christ Ethics Moral nature is absolute and unchanging. God always hates evil and loves good. The Bible shows the difference between the two, demonstrating how unambiguous ethics apply to all people at all times. Politics (Evolution; Proletariat Rule.) Economics (Socialism/Communism.) Law (State is source for "truth.“) Ethics (Man decides, must advance state.) Sociology (State abolishes institutions) Theology (Man accountable to self) Truth/Reality (Man is good, defines truth)

  23. The View of Jesus Christ Law God created human government and rule of law to contain man's sinful nature. God's Word and nature are sufficient for man to devise laws that reflect man's creative image, while recognizing his depravity. Politics (Evolution; Proletariat Rule.) Economics (Socialism/Communism.) Law (State is source for "truth.“) Ethics (Man decides, must advance state.) Sociology (State abolishes institutions) Theology (Man accountable to self) Truth/Reality (Man is good, defines truth)

  24. Economics System promotes justice by protecting rights of individuals; basic checks and balances defend human rights, and grant men responsibility and ownership –- in both private property and economic decisions. The View of Jesus Christ Politics (Evolution; Proletariat Rule.) Economics (Socialism/Communism.) Law (State is source for "truth.“) Ethics (Man decides, must advance state.) Sociology (State abolishes institutions) Theology (Man accountable to self) Truth/Reality (Man is good, defines truth)

  25. Politics Government enforces law to keep man’s evil in check, while offering him the freedom to express his goodness. Government has checked obligations, not totalitarian powers. The View of Jesus Christ Politics (Evolution; Proletariat Rule.) Economics (Socialism/Communism.) Law (State is source for "truth.“) Ethics (Man decides, must advance state.) Sociology (State abolishes institutions) Theology (Man accountable to self) Truth/Reality (Man is good, defines truth)

  26. The Oracle of Delphi proclaimed that Socrates was the wisest man of Greece. Socrates responded, “’Tis because I alone of all the Greeks know that I know nothing.”

  27. Who Knows?

  28. Socrates’ Glasses

  29. THEORY OF FORMS • Truth Exists Out There … • Accessible in Us through Reason.

  30. THEORY OF FORMS • Truth Exists Out There … • Accessible in Us through Reason. • The World Is an Illusion (Shadow.)

  31. THEORY OF FORMS • Truth Exists Out There … • Accessible in Us through Reason. • The World Is an Illusion (Shadow.) • Good and Evil.

  32. THEORY OF FORMS • Truth Exists Out There … • Accessible in Us through Reason. • The World Is an Illusion (Shadow.) • Good and Evil. • Identity: Immortal Soul.

  33. THEORY OF GNOSTICISM

  34. “The body alone and its desires cause wars because we are enslaved by the wishes of the body. For if it is impossible to have pure knowledge while we have a body, one or two things must be true. While we live we come closest to true knowledge if we have no use for or communion with the body beyond what is absolutely necessary. And if we are not defiled by its nature we must live pure of the body until God releases us.” -- Socrates

  35. Good and Evil

  36. IMPLICATIONS OF GNOSTICISM • Legalism: Obeying the rules to hold back desires like sexuality, hunger, desires for appreciation, respect, comfort, etc. • Hedonism: Fully experiencing the pleasures of the body as an end to themselves. They are not “the real you” anyway.

  37. 1 Corinthians 6:19-20 Or do you not know that your body is the temple of the Holy Spirit who is in you, whom you have from God, and you are not your own? For you were bought at a price; therefore glorify God in your body and in your spirit, which are God’s. New King James Version