Review Session Art 101 Mid-term Exam Fall 2003
Things to review • Important concepts • Review of various media • Artwork highlights from each period
PART ONEImportant Concepts • Possible T/F, matching, essay questions • Know the basic idea and be able to recognize it in a work of art
The “Divine Ruler” • The king, emperor, or other political leader is set up as something more than mortal. • They are given their office my divine intervention (deity’s representation on earth) or • They are the physical embodiment of the deity itself
Divine Ruler Palette of King Narmer - Egyptian Augustus of Primaporta - Roman
Abstract vs. Representational Art • Representational - art intended to realistically depict something from life (or, something real) • Abstract - an image created by taking something from, or abstracting, an life-like object • Even a photograph is “abstract” since it takes a three-dimensional object and forces it into only two dimensions
Representational image (Egypto-Roman portrait painting) Abstracted forms (Cycladic statuette)
The “Law” of Frontality • The idea that in order to depict a person completely, you had to include as much of that person in the image as possible. • Usually reserved for royalty, but not always • The figures are intentionally abstracted Book of the Dead (detail) - Egyptian Palette of King Narmer Egyptian
Foreshortening • As opposed to the flat, frontal style of some works • Where the body is depicted more naturally, where objects get smaller as they get further away, forms overlap, etc.
Foreshortening NO YES Etruscan Tomb Fresco (detail) Frontality Roman Mythological Fresco
Contrapposto • Italian for “counterpoise” • The nonsymmetrical figure is at rest, but ready for action - “the pose of potential motion” • Weight resting on one leg
Contrapposto Hermes and Infant Bacchus by sculptor Praxiteles (Greek) Knidos Aphrodite also by Praxiteles
Pathos • An emotional element in the work of art • Subject is designed to elicit an emotional response from the viewer • Dignified suffering Dying Gaul - Greek Dying Nyobid - Greek
Characteristics of the “Classical” Style • In sculpture/painting/etc. • Drapery, usually in form of toga-type clothing • Pathos • The search for the “ideal” beauty • In architecture • Columns • Pediment • The post and lintel system
Classical Artwork Three Goddesses from the Parthenon pediment Greek Nike of Samothrace - Greek
Classical Architecture Parthenon - on the Athens acropolis - Greek
Form and Content • The best works of ART will include both: • Mastery of form - an image showing the artist’ master over the MEDIA they choose to use. • Content, or Meaning - the work will have some message or idea expressed beyond being just a picture Portrait Bust of Queen Nefertete Egyptian Nike of Samothrace Greek
Composition • The purposeful arrangement of objects, shapes on the picture plane • The arrangement depends on the content of the work (it’s purpose) and the way the artist wants the viewer to look at the image. • The area of primary importance • The direction of the motion of the eye Roman mosaic copy of Greek painting - Alexander the Great defeating the Persian army
Canon • A formula that was supposed to create the perfect human form • Based on mathematical principles governing proportion • Reflects the belief in “absolute beauty” Myron’s Discobulus Greek Praxiteles’ Aphrodite Egyptian
Illustration • An art object that accompanies a story - brings the message alive using pictures or sculptures (the work is “illustrative”) Villa of Mysteries, Pompeii fresco (Roman) Herakles Wrestling Lion (Greek black-figure pot)
Arch • The architectural form pioneered by the Etruscans and adopted by the Romans. The Romans used it extensively and it, combined with the barrel vault, allowed them to build extremely large concrete structures.
Barrel Vault • An architectural space created by a long row of arches. Allowed the Romans to create very large indoor spaces. Used for bath houses and other civic structures.
Aesthetics • The branch of philosophy dealing with the nature of beauty.
Ziggurat • Mesopotamian tower structure • The tower of Babel in Genesis 11 is an example.
Apse Colonnade Nave Aisle Aisle Atrium Narthex Basilica • The architectural design created by the Romans for large public spaces. Adopted by the Christians after Constantine for church buildings.
Vellum • Bleached animal skin. Developed by the Greeks as the “paper” for books. Illuminated manuscripts are commonly made out of vellum.
“Animal Style” • Early medieval, decorative style of carving usually found on the personal gear of barbarians/nomads. Carved into complex animal shapes.
Romanesque • the term applied to art produced at the end the “dark ages.” Derived from the roman-like arches and columns used in cathedral architecture.
Groin Vault • the term used to describe the intersection of two barrel vaults.
Gothic • The international style of church architecture that first appeared in France in ±1137 and spread throughout Europe. Most easily identified by the flying buttresses and pointed arches that allow extremely high ceilings and lots of windows/light.
Flying Buttresses • Arches connected to the exterior of a Gothic cathedral that support the weight of the high ceiling, taking away the need for thick, brick walls. Allows for numerous, large, stained glass windows.
Tympaneum • The semi-circular area above the main entrance to a Romanesque or Gothic cathedral. A common location for large-scale low- and high-relief sculpture.
PART TWOMedia Review • Relief vs. in-the-round • Marble • Terracotta • Bronze • Tempera • Black/Red figure (Greek pottery) • Fresco • Encaustic • Mosaic
High Relief High Relief Relief vs. in-the-round Low Relief Gods vs. Giants Siphnian Treasury, Greek Free- Standing (in the round) Free- Standing (in the round) Prince Rahotep and Nofrete Egyptian Kore (female figure) - Archaic Greek
Terracotta (clay) Marble Octavius depicted as Mercury (Roman) Apollo, from Veii (Etruscan)
Bronze Charioteer - Greek Poseidon (or Zeus?) - Greek
Fresco Pigment applied directly to wet plaster to dry in place “Garden” fresco on wall of apartment - Roman
Encaustic Fresco Painted in molten wax - very durable Pigment applied directly to wet plaster to dry in place “Garden” fresco on wall of apartment - Roman Egypto-Roman portrait painting
Mosaic • An image composed of tiny pieces of colored stone (Roman) and later glass (Byzantines). When viewed from a distance, the bits of color mix to form an image.
PART THREEHighlights from Each Period See the Website: http://frida.blc.edu/~andyo/classes/ar101/ar101.html