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Water Effectiveness In The Home

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  1. Water Efficiency In The Home Judy Adler, P.E. Pollution Prevention Assistance Division

  2. Total = 72.5 gallons per capita per day Typical Single Family Home Water Use Without Conservation

  3. Typical Single Family Home Water Use With Conservation Total = 49.6 gallons per capita per day

  4. What factors affect water usage in the home? • Plumbing Fixtures • Household income • Cost of water & wastewater service • Occupancy rates • Age and Lifestyle of residents • Climate • Local Landscape • Water Habits • Awareness of the need to conserve water

  5. Energy Policy Act 1992 • Effective January 1, 1994 • Water efficiency plumbing standards Toilets 1.6 gpf Urinals 1.0 gpf Showerheads 2.5 gpm @ 80 psi Faucets 2.5 gpm @ 80 psi • 81 MGD water savings in ACF by 2010

  6. Economic analysis for my best friend’s toilet • Existing toilet = 5 gpf • Average 10 flushes per day • New toilet = 1.6 gpf (about $200 including installation) • Water savings = 12,410 gal/yr = 16.6 ccf • Cost savings @ $5/ccf = $83/year Payback =2.4 years

  7. Economic analysis for my toilet • Existing toilet = 3.5 gpf • Average 10 flushes per day • New toilet = 1.6 gpf (about $200 including installation) • Water savings = 6,935 gal/yr = 9.3 ccf • Cost savings @ $5/ccf = $47/year Payback =4.3 years

  8. More toilet talk……………….. An average of 20% of toilets leak Toilet retrofits • displacement devices (saves 0.8 gpf) • early closing flappers (saves up to 50% per flush) • Toilet dams (saves 0.5 gpf) • Valve retrofit kits for flushometers (1.0 gpf)

  9. More toilet talk……………….. Consumer Reports High Rated Toilets - October 2002 • BriggsVacuity 4200 vacuum-assisted toilet - $220 • Gerber Ultra Flushpressure-assisted toilet - $280 • TotoCarlyle gravity toilet - $460 • KohlerWellworth gravity toilet - $150 • American StandardCadet gravity toilet - $170

  10. Urinals • New 1.0 gpf Urinals (compared to 1.5 to 5.0 gpf) • Waterless urinals • Flush-valve replacement kit (saves 1.0 gpf) • New 2.2/2.5 gpm showerheads save 35-50% of water use compared to older fixtures • Inexpensive (payback typically < 1.0 year) Showerheads

  11. If 2.5 gpm just isn’t enough………

  12. Faucets • Low-flow aerators • Metered valves • Sensor-activated faucets • Leak repair • Point-of-use hot water demand units

  13. Dishwashers • New dishwashers use about 7.0 gallons of water per load • Older dishwashers use up to 14 gallons per load Consumer Reports - August 2002 High rated and moderately priced dishwashers • Kenmore (Sears) 1563(2) and 1552(2) $350-$450 • GE Triton XL GSD6600G $499

  14. Clothes Washers • High efficiency clothes washers use about 27 gallons of water per load vs. 56 gallons per load for standard top loaders • High efficiency clothes washers use 40 – 70 % less energy Consumer Reports – July 2002 Highest ranking – Kenmore Elite 4292 $1,450 High ranking and lower price – Kenmore 4204, Frigidaire Gallery, and GE Profile $750

  15. Behavioral Indoor Measures • Take a quick shower (save 20 gallons) • Collect water from faucet while you wait for hot water and use it to water plants • Compost food scraps instead of using garbage disposal

  16. Behavioral Indoor Measures • Don’t pre-rinse dishes except in cases of sticky food • Only run dishwasher and washing machine with full loads • Use short cycles on dishwasher and washing machine • If it’s yellow, let it mellow…..

  17. Indoor conservation incentives • Rebates for toilets, showerheads, washing machines • Free water conservation kits • Free audits and/or installation of low-flow devices • Retrofit on resale ordinances • Education Education!

  18. Success StorySanta Monica, California • Retrofit Upon Resale Ordinance requires installation of water-saving plumbing devices whenever any residential or commercial property is sold or transferred • $75 rebate for 1.6 gpf toilets • Water use surveys provide free indoor kits • Cost of program = $5.4 million • Cost savings of $9.5 million from avoided purchases of imported water and avoided wastewater treatment plant capacity

  19. Success StoryMassachusetts Water Resources Authority (MWRA) • Operation Watersense • Direct installation of water-saving devices • 58% participation rate • Installed low-flow fixtures in 348,871 households • MWRA’s water conservation program saved $1.4 – 1.9 million* in deferred water supply and treatment plant capacity *Includes savings from other conservation programs including leak detection and repair, education, improved metering, and rate structures

  20. Indoor Conservation Challenges • Low and declining water rates • Previous experience with poor products • Consumer apathy & ignorance • Rumors