31st Meeting of the EMU General Assembly and Conference “Music Education in Nordic Countries”14 November 2006
Question 1How Nordic countries can guarantee entry for all in art education (different social groups, migrants etc.) and are there special programmes to reach all children?
Nordic Countries No contry can guarantee access for all children Denmark have a music law aiming at 0 – 2 year students, with a limit of 33 % tuition fee. Expect shools to have a broad offer in music and art subjects. Sweden Our ultimate coal to give access to all. Fees rather low, some municipalities offer for free.
Finland co-operate with different music education providers and organizations. Music schools only part of the whole education system. Iceland Music schools should provide access for all to participate in music. Depends on community. School fees an obstacle to many. Norway Both our organisation and the Government share the goal: “Music and art school for all”. National aim: 30%.
Question 2. What is the relationship between goal oriented music education and ideology "music for all" in your country? What is your main goal, to create professionals or good amateur musicians?
Denmark The main goal is to create musicunderstanding and loving and thereby create highly qualified music students and active listeners. Sweden No antithesis between goal oriented music education and music for all ideology. ”Spear peaks” will come out automatically. Finland Different ”paths” for music school students. One extended and one general curriculium.
Iceland Mostly goal-oriented. Music for all generally for certain age groups, mainly the youngest students. Norway Basically a broad, open offer for all children. Regionally ”Saturday schools” for the gifted pupils.
Question 3. What is the relation between music schools and art schools?
Denmark Approximately 10 % of the schools are music and art schools. Sweden About 50 % music and art schools. (”Culture schools”.) All subjects should have the same ideology and position in the schools. Finland Only few genuine art schools. Own union working to create a common policy for arts education in all fields including pedagogical issues.
Iceland has no culture school / art school system. Norway Almost all are music and art schools. Music is by far the dominating subject.
Question 4. How does your association take care of "future audience training" (children concerts, co-operation with symphony orchestras etc)?
Denmark ”Live Music in Schools” has programme for this. Cooperate with symphony orchestras. Sweden It is the local music and art school’s duty to take care about future audience training. Finland Music schools arrange local concerts. The Association of Finnish Music Schools cooperate with composers, orchestras etc.
Iceland Part of the national music schools’ curriculium to prepare children to perform and support musical life. Some schools special programmes for audience training. Norway A national programme lead by the Association - ”Creatice Child Environment”- trains teachers in producing conserts for school children. Cooperation with National Concert Bureau, and ”The Cultural School Bag”.
Question 5. People in Europe mostly speak about the ''Nordic countries", but what is really a Nordic common in these countries and what are the differences?
Similarities Denmark: A democratic profile. Sweden: Arts education plays an important role in society. Important political issue. Public founding. Finland: Long tradition of the Nordic welfare society thinking. Local autonomy. Nature influence art education.
Iceland: Music schools in almost every community. Not centrally administered. Norway: Democratic poitical processes at national level and locally. From music to art schools.
Differences Denmark: Board of parents in every school. Money directly from government. (15%). No tests. Sweden: ”Music for all” – ideology / spear peaks. Level of tution fees, state support. Music schools to music and art (cultural) schools. Finland: Level of public funding.(State vs municipality) Differences in multicultural society. State guidance: Legislation/curricula.
Iceland: Form of teaching varies, also funding of schools. Some of the countries developing music and art schools, others not yet. Norway: Main difference between Finish and Swedish/Norwegian/Danish models of music schools. Finland strong on offer for the gifted children, the other countries more broad approach to ”music for all”. Iceland similarities to the Finish model.