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RTV 3007

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RTV 3007

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  1. RTV 3007 Programming

  2. Filling the Program Schedule

  3. Purposes of Programs • Attract largest audience with best demographics • Balanced schedule for sales department • Satisfy public interest requirements • Develop favorable image

  4. Where Stations get their Programs • Local Production

  5. Where Stations get their Programs • Network(s) • Full Service • Regional • Ad hoc/Occasional

  6. Network

  7. Network

  8. Where Stations get their Programs • Syndicated Programming

  9. Syndication

  10. Networks and Programming

  11. Program Sources: Where Networks Get Their Programs Production Community (Hollywood) Network Production Co-productions

  12. Broadcast Network Program Process • Development of Program Proposals • Treatment (one minute synopsis of show) • Promising ideas into scripts • Often Includes Step Deal & first refusal rights • Production of some scripts into pilots • Testing and evaluation leads to contract for limited number of episodes

  13. Network Program Process • Networks announce next season’ s lineup of new shows in Spring (May) • Networks reserve some new shows for Fall lineup (Sept.) and some for the second season (Jan-Feb) to replace shows that don’t make it • 9 out of 10 new programs that make the air fail because of poor ratings

  14. Network Program Process Some “hot” producers are given development deals for a number of programs over a period of time

  15. The Changing Production Environment Changes in Program Ownership Rules Vertical Integration

  16. Program Costs

  17. Program Costs Average per-episode fee paid by commercial networks for television series (2000) • 30-minute sitcom $925,000 • 1-hour drama $1,450,000 • 1 hour Newsmagazine $750,000 • 1 hour Reality $650,000 • Made-for-TV-Movie (90-120 minutes) $2,850,000

  18. Program Costs Average per-episode fee paid by commercial networks for television series (2004) • 30-minute sitcom $1,125,000 • 1-hour drama $1,675,000 • 1 hour Newsmagazine $840,000 • 1 hour Reality $795,000 • Made-for-TV-Movie (90-120 minutes) $3,150,000

  19. Program Costs Costs keep rising: Average per-episode fee paid by commercial networks for television series (2006) 30 minute Situation Comedy $1,600,000 60 minute Drama $2,800,000 Reality $1,500,000

  20. Program Costs Per-episode fee paid by commercial networks for specific television series (2006) ER $13,000,000

  21. Program Costs Average 2002-03 per-episode fee that NBC paid WB (producer) for 30 minute situation comedy, “Friends”… $10,000,000

  22. Program Costs Average per-episode cost to produce “Friends” in 2002-03 … $10, 500,000 Deficit….$500,000 per episode

  23. Final season of Friends (2002-03) • Each Friends cast member received $1 million per episode ($22 million for the season) • Friends cast members also get a cut in syndication profits • Deficit well over $500,000 per episode for last Friends season • Advertising rate for 30-second network spot during Friends $450,000

  24. Program Costs In most cases the cost of producing a program is higher than what the network will pay

  25. Program Costs This is called “The Deficit”

  26. Program Costs Examples of other large deficits (2000)…  Frasier $400,000 Law and Order $420,000

  27. Program Costs But…. ER per episode license fee $13,000,000—”in profit” NYPD Blue, Spin City, X-files had production costs paid for while still on network run

  28. Why take a deficit to produce a broadcast network program? • May make millions with a “hit” in off-network Syndication, especially a long-running series • Example: Superstation TBS pays approximately $1 million per episode (plus one minute of ad space) for a four-year run of Seinfeld

  29. Programming Strategies

  30. Programming Strategies • Goal: Maximizing Audience Flow Flow: The audience attracted to a program will watch other programs before and after it

  31. Friends NBC Thur West Wing NBC Wed ER NBC Thur Law & Order NBC Wed Raymond CBS Mon CSI CBS Thurs Survivor CBS Thurs Will/Grace NBC Thur L/O: SVU NBC Wed Becker CBS Mon Just Shoot Me NBC Thur 60 Mins CBS Sun JAG CBS Tue MNF ABC Mon Judging Amy CBS Tue Practice ABC Sun Frasier NBC Tues The Guardian CBS Tue NFL Showcase ABC Mon L/O Criminal Intent NBC Sun Flow: Oct 2001 Prime Time Ratings

  32. Program Strategies • Strip: Presented at the same time each day of the week • Builds viewer loyalty • Builds viewer habit

  33. Program Strategies • Block : Programs similar in appeal follow one another

  34. Program Strategies • Strong Lead-in: Major program at start of day-part

  35. Program Strategies • Checkerboarding: Different programs each day in a time slot

  36. Program Strategies • Hammock: Putting a weak or unproven program between two successful ones

  37. Program Strategies • Front-loading: Major episode, feature film, early in season • Cross-over:Character from one program appears on other program • Spin-off: Taking popular characters from one show and give them their own show

  38. Program Strategies • Seamless Programming : One program ends and the next begins without interruption • Repurposing: Re-run of broadcast content on a cable network shortly after it airs originally on network affiliate stations.