Archaeology Lesson Plan “The study of prehistory can contribute vitally to the students’ understanding of themselves, their society, and their culture. From the evidence archaeologists uncover, we can deduce a great deal about the ways of life in prehistoric Kentucky and make inferences about the values held by prehistoric man and the beliefs and attitudes that governed his responses. Students will discover that prehistoric people were neither savage nor ignorant, but even like themselves, sharing the same fears and dreams, encountering and solving (or not solving) similar problems. Students learn to regard their own culture and their own lives not as the culmination of human effort but as part of a continuum” (Carpenter & Fraser 14).
Archaeology Lesson Plan • This activity can be done in your own classroom using the ideas from this PowerPoint and using the Prehistoric Kentucky traveling trunk. • The workshop will consist of a small series of activities and projects to fill a three hour block. • There is a list of books provided (slides 14-18) relating to the topic that students can use for further independent study. • Suggested follow up assignments and grading rubrics will also be supplied to the teacher.
Archaeology PowerPoint • Begin this Lesson Plan with one of the Archaeology PowerPoint's found on the Kentucky Library & Museum Website. Download the appropriate grade level there: • http://www.wku.edu/library/kylm/education/ky_educators/
Archaeology Activity The More Things Change, the More They Stay the Same (artifacts found in Prehistoric Kentucky traveling trunk) • Assignment: “After comparing artifacts from Kentucky’s prehistoric past with artifacts serving the same function from the present, students will respond to questions designed to probe their feeling about prehistory and prehistoric man in the form of an essay to be graded by their teacher. • Objective: Participation in this activity will help students clarify their attitudes toward human behavior and human values”(Carpenter & Fraser 14). • Procedure: I will present prehistoric artifacts and they will respond by telling me what modern day tool would serve the same function as the prehistoric artifact. For example: I would present a clay pot. I would ask the students what they think it was used for and give an example of something we would use today, like a sauce pan or a crock pot.
Archaeology Activity Artifacts Artifacts to be compared: Lithic Knife Nutting Stone Mortar & Pestle Hammerstone Grass Slipper from Mammoth Cave Chunkey Stones
Archaeology Activity Discussion Questions for Discussion & Essay Response Discuss these questions with students or have them write an essay on the third question prompt to turn in for a grade. • Do you believe these people really existed? How do you feel about handling man-made objects as much as 10,000 years old? Nervous? Excited? Indifferent? • Could you live they way kids your age did in prehistoric times? Would you like to? Do you think they complained about chores? Listened to music? Fought with their siblings? • Do you think prehistoric people were primitive and ignorant? Do you think prehistoric life was less complicated than ours? Discuss ethnocentrism.
Archaeology Activity Grading Rubric Scoring Rubric for Essay Response (For Teacher Use) • Archaeology is a universal topic—it is done any time, anywhere, about anyone. Archaeology can be applied to, or learned by, any culture. This exercise should help students understand the dangers of ethnocentrism, which can easily be applied to modern day issues of profiling, racism, and cultural differences.
Archaeology Art Projects • Students can create their own “artifact” to take home. If time permits they can do more than one project. • Construct and decorate a clay pot. • String a marine shell necklace. • Paint their own rock art.
Archaeology Art Project - Pottery • Students can construct a pinch pot or coil pot and decorate it in traditional prehistoric methods. • Tools/Supplies: self-drying clay, sharpened pencils for incising (scratched lines), blunt sticks for punctating (repeated pressed shape), burlap cloth for fabric impressed texture, and sticks wrapped in twine for cord marked texture. Punctated Incised Cord Marked Fabric Impressed
Archaeology Art Project - Shell Necklace • Students can string a shell necklace. • Supplies: various marine shells and twine.
Archaeology Art Project - Rock Art • A petroglyph is carved and a pictograph is painted (see Prehistoric Art PowerPoint). • The students can choose to replicate the designs or create their own original artwork representative of something meaningful to them on a flat rock or on paper. • Supplies: sample art, flat rocks, paint, and brushes. Samples of petroglyphs found in Kentucky rock shelters. (Coy, Fuller, Meadows, Swauger, 2003)
Book Review / Research Topics • I chose each book to relate to archaeology and/or Kentucky prehistory specifically. • The teacher can utilize these books as additional study and research tools. • I would suggest a possible book report on a specific topic in archaeology using these books and other resources. • Topics could include: • A famous archaeologist • Excavation techniques (test-pitting, hand excavation, or mechanical digging) • Dating methods (radio-carbon dating, dendrochronoly, potassium-argon dating, etc) • A prehistoric time period (Paleo-Indian, Archaic, Woodland, or Historic) • A specific archaeological site in North America or Kentucky • A specific type of archaeology (under-water, biblical, egyptology. etc.) • Modern Native American tribes. • Foodways (hunting, domestication of flora and fauna) • Specific artifact types (projectile points, pottery, etc.) • Field survey techniques (GIS, aerial photography, etc.)
Book I -Kentucky Archaeological Survey, Educational Series The Kentucky Heritage Council published a series of public education booklets and videos relating to archaeology in Kentucky. This series of booklets range from 12 to 30 pages each and address various archaeological issues and talks about prehistoric and historic archaeological sites located in Kentucky. Contact: Kentucky Heritage Council300 Washington StreetFrankfort, Kentucky 40601 Booklets are $5 each. TAMING YELLOW CREEK: Alexander Arthur, the Yellow Creek Canal, and Middlesborough, Kentucky 2000 BRINGING THE PAST INTO THE FUTURE: The Reconstruction of the Detached Kitchen at Riverside 2003
Book II –Kentuckians Before Boone An educational booklet and poster published by the Kentucky Heritage Council. “This book describes the lives of one Native American family in central Kentucky in the year 1585. Fishes-With-Hands, his wife She-Who-Watches, and their family grind corn, make cooking pots, and build their homes while in their summer village. In autumn, they attend the funeral and mourning feast of Masked-Eyes. Then they move to their winter hunting camp, where they process nuts, make arrows, and hunt and butcher animals in preparation for the winter. Readers will soon realize that their lives and experiences in many ways parallel those of this family from Kentucky's not-so-distant past” (KHC).
Book III – Archaeologists: Explorers of the Human Past A biographical book about archaeologists throughout history. “A collection of essays on antiquarians and archaeologists from early figures to recent notables. The book is divided into four chronological sections, each beginning with an introduction that sets the scene for the biographies that follow and ending with paragraph sketches of other archaeologists from the same period. Individual entries investigate each subject's major contributions to archaeology as a science and to knowledge of the past in general” (Amazon.com). by Brian Fagan Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2003.
Book IV - The Young Oxford Book of Archaeology A well-illustrated book, which describes some of the world's most famous archeological sites along with some typical archeological methods. “A comprehensive reference book geared toward curious young people with an interest in archaeology or anthropology, Paleolithic specialist Norah Moloney's Young Oxford Book of Archaeology is packed with great photographs and illustrations. The book introduces human evolutionary concepts as background for a chronological sequence of significant archaeological discoveries” (Amazon.com). by Norah Moloney Oxford University Press, Oxford. 1995.
Book V – The Usborne Young Scientist: Archaeology For a slightly younger audience, but useful for learning the very basics of archaeology. “This book gives simple yet complete explanations of how archaeological "detectives" investigate the past by using scientific clues and techniques. Land and sea exploration is covered and sections are devoted to looking for evidence; pottery; bodies; animal and plant remains; and buildings. Various dating methods are explained: radioactive dating, carbon 14, tree rings, potassium,argon dating, fission track dating, and thermoluminesence. Also included are sections about detecting fakes (by dating tests, X-rays, and chemical tests) and about how we can preserve our past . Conservation methods for wood, leather, and metal are covered as well as how archaeologists put ancient broken items back together. The authors explain how archaeologists put together their evidence and research to come to logical conclusions” (Amazon.com). by Barbara Cork & Struan Reid E.D.C. Publishing, 1985.
References • Amazon.com. “Book Reviews” 1 Dec. 2005. <Amazon.com> • Carpenter, Jim and Kathryn Fraser. “The More Things Change, the More They Stay the Same.” Studying the Prehistory of Man in Kentucky: Activities for the Middle School Classroom. Center for Environmental Education, Murray State University, 1983. 13-14. • Coy, Fred, Thomas C. Fuller, Larry G. Meadows, and James L. Swauger. Rock Art of Kentucky. University Press of Kentucky, Lexington, KY, 2003. • Google Images. 1 December 2005. <http://www.google.com/imghp?hl=en&tab=wi&q=> • Kentucky Heritage Council (KHC). “Educational Publications” KY Heritage Council. 2003. 1 Dec. 2005. <www.state.ky.us/agencies/ khc/educational_pub.htm> PowerPoint created by Amy J McCray, 2007.