Down to earth Neurology Back Agony - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Down to earth Neurology Back Agony

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  1. Practical NeurologyBack Pain Wendy Blount, DVM

  2. Some rules about back pain • Completely unilateral neuro signs rarely arise from the spinal cord • Usually bilateral • Though may be more pronounced on one side • Monoparesis – think peripheral nerve disease first • The first neuro deficit is: • Conscious proprioreception • Then voluntary motor • Then superficial pain • Then deep pain

  3. Does this dog’s back hurt? Things that can look like Back Pain • Referred abdominal pain • Abnormalities on abdominal x-rays, barium series, ultrasound or bloodwork • Muscle pain • CPK high, Confirm with muscle biopsy • Immune mediated polymyositis • Beagle Pain Syndrome • Orthopedic pain • Bilateral knees and hips • Complete musculoskeletal exam & x-rays • Neuro exam normal on imitators

  4. Does this dog’s back hurt? Back Pain can look like something else • Limb lameness • Root signature - limping on one leg • Extension of the limb does indeed hurt • Abdominal pain • Pressure put on back when palpation abdomen • Constipation • Dogs with lumbosacral pain don’t want to squat to defecate

  5. Does this dog’s back hurt? Back Pain can look like something else • Lethargy • Can be confused with reluctance to move • Orchitis, Epididymitis • Appear as if back hurts

  6. DDx for back/neck pain • Intervertebral Disc Disease • Wobbler Syndrome • Congenital spinal malformations • Neoplasia • Discospondylitis • Meningitis • Spinal arthritis & spondylosis • Trauma • Forebrain mass

  7. DDx for back/neck pain Uncommon Causes of Back Pain • Extradural synovial cysts, arachoid cysts, dermoid cysts • Myelodysplasia • Meningocoeles/Myelomeningocoeles • Syringomyelia/Hydromyelia • Spinal dysraphism • Spina bifida • Failure of dorsal laminae to fuse • Associated spinal cord malformations

  8. DDx for back/neck pain Uncommon Causes of Back Pain • Multiple Cartilagenous exostoses • Nodules of cartilage/bone proliferate from growth plates • Hypervitaminosis A • Cats fed primarily liver • Vertebral exostoses • Prognosis poor • Methionine deficiency • Hunting dogs fed primarily tripe (Europe) • T3-L3 progressive myelinopathy • Prognosis good with proper diet

  9. DDx for back/neck pain Uncommon Causes of Back Pain • Calcinosis Circumscripta • Dural Ossification • Disseminated idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH) • Periarticular ossification throughout the body

  10. DDx for back/neck pain Causes of Progressive Rear end Weakness without Pain • LMN Reflexes • Degenerative Myelopathy • Hypothyroidism Polyneuropathy • Botulism • Coonhound paralysis • Tick paralysis • End stage myasthenia gravis • UMN Reflexes • Rottweiler Leukoencaphalomyelopathy • Hereditary Ataxia of Jack Russell Terriers • Afghan Hound Myelopathy

  11. Intervertebral Disc Disease Type I Disc Disease • Annulus around the disk weakens • Disc material acutely extrudes • Acute pain • +/- neuro deficits • Small dogs Type II Disc Disease • Annulus gradually thickens • Insidious weakness • Neuro deficits > pain • Large dogs

  12. Intervertebral Disc Disease Presentation • Uncommon in cats • Upper cervical extrusion (Type I) • “The Screaming Chihuahua” • C2-3 most common • Severe neck pain • Mild neuro deficits • Nose down posture with arched back • Neck muscle fasciculations • Thoracic limb root signature

  13. Intervertebral Disc Disease Presentation • Type I TL Disc Disease • Acute presentation • Usually T11-L5 • Rarely T2-T10 • Intercapital ligament • Neuro deficits more common than with upper cervical type I • Type II Disc Disease • Progressive weakness with some back pain • Larger dogs

  14. Intervertebral Disc Disease Diagnosis • History and signalment • Physical Exam • CP deficits tell you there is neuro disease • Neuro exam localizes the lesion • CBC, panel, lytes, UA – normal • Urine culture if urine retention • Radiographs • Referral – myelogram, CSF tap, CT/MRI

  15. Intervertebral Disc Disease Modified Frankel Scale • Grade 0 – paraplegia, no deep pain • Grade 1 – paraplegia, no superficial pain • Grade 2 – paraplegia with normal pain sensation • Grade 3 – nonambulatory paraparesis • Some voluntary motor • Can’t bear weight without support • Grade 4 – nonambulatory paraparesis • Can stand but not walk • Grade 5 – ambulatory paraparesis

  16. Intervertebral Disc Disease Radiographs • Under sedation – GUARD THE SPINE!! • Positioning is everything (esp. traction) • Patient comfort • Slightest movement causes blurring • Survey radiographs can identify the site of disc herniation in 50-60% of cases • Radiographic signs of disc disease: • Narrowing or wedging of disc space • Decreased size of intervertebral foramen • Reduced space between articular facets • Mineralized disc material in vertebral canal or intervertebral foramen

  17. Intervertebral Disc Disease When is it Surgical? • Emergency surgery • Rapidly deteriorating neurologic function • Do twice daily neurologic exams • Non-ambulatory (can’t walk without assistance) • Scheduled Surgery • chronic severe pain • Moderate to severe neuro deficits that fail to improve

  18. Intervertebral Disc Disease Emergency Treatment • Confinement • IV fluid therapy • Mediates ischemia • Analgesia • Tramadol 3-5 mg/kg PO TID • NSAIDs • Opiates if needed

  19. Intervertebral Disc Disease Emergency Treatment • Glucocorticoids • High dose SoluMedrol widely used • Also dexamethasone • Little evidence that it changes outcome in dogs who proceed to surgery • Serious side effects are possible • 33% have GI side effects to MPSS • Dexamethasone can increase risk of colon perforation • Clinical experience tells us that it does help non-surgical cases • Use in moderation NOT WITH NSAIDs • 0.1 mg/kg SID-QOD

  20. Intervertebral Disc Disease Emergency Treatment • Free Radical Scavengers • Fewer side effects than glucocorticoids • But no proven benefits • DMSO • Tirilazad • Polyethylene glycol • Poloxamer 188 • Solcoseryl • Naloxone • Crocetin • TRH • Mannitol was associated with harm in feline experimental model

  21. Intervertebral Disc Disease Long Term Treatment • CAGE REST!!!! (how long?) • At least 2 weeks • Some recommend 4-6 weeks • Crate size – can change positions but not walk around • Activity limited to leash walks • Gradually back to normal activity over 2-6 weeks after cage rest finished • Monitor for progressive neuro signs • Weakness, paralysis • Difficulty urinating • Analgesics

  22. Intervertebral Disc Disease Long Term Treatment • +/- Antiinflammatories (dose??) • Prednisone – 0.5 mg/kg PO BID x 5-7 d, then SID x 7d, then QOD 7 doses • NSAIDs (not both!!!) • DO NOT give anti-inflammatories without cage rest!! • Muscle Relaxants • Methocarbamol 15-20 mg/kg PO TID • Acupuncture • Glucosamine/chondroitin

  23. Intervertebral Disc Disease Prognosis • Very few outcome studies on medically managed dogs • No deep pain • 40-50% will walk again with medical treatment • 60-80% will walk again with surgery • 33% of those that walk again will have intermittent incontinence • Recovery of deep pain within 2 weeks carries a good prognosis • Length of time between loss of deep pain and surgery • Surgery sooner is better than later • 48 hour rule – no longer widely accepted

  24. Intervertebral Disc Disease Prognosis • Non-ambulatory with pain sensation • 80-95% success with surgery • Mean time from surgery to ambulation • 10-13 days for small dogs • Much longer for large dogs • Mean 7 weeks to ambulation • 62% walking in 4 weeks • 92% walking within 12 weeks • Longer for older, heavier patients • Back pain alone without neuro deficits • 24 of 25 of dogs improved with surgery • No studies I am aware of on medical Tx

  25. Intervertebral Disc Disease Prognosis • More acute paralysis carries worse prognosis • Those that go from walking to paralyzed in less than one hour don’t do as well • Those who go down gradually (1-2 days) have better prognosis • Respiratory compromise • Prognosis same with a ventilator • Prognosis grave without ventilator • Dogs non-ambulatory from type II disease over weeks to months have worse prognosis than type I

  26. Intervertebral Disc Disease Prognosis • 20% of dogs who have back surgery will have another episode of back pain with neuro deficits • Most do not require surgery • Re-operate rate is <10% • 40% recurrence when treated medically • Dogs with 5 or more mineralized discs at surgery have 50% recurrence rate

  27. Lucky • 17 year old male cocker spaniel with: • Hypothyroidism (Soloxine) • Glaucoma & prostheses • Cognitive Dysfunction Disorder • Hip Dysplasia (Rimadyl PRN, glucosamine) • Carcinoma L ear canal – debulked twice • HPI - Started showing behavioral changes a few weeks ago • Episodes of panic • DDx • Pain • Cerebral Disease • Cognitive Dysfunction • Brain Tumor (ear tumor met??) • Infectious, Inflammatory, Metabolic • Hypertension

  28. Lucky • Review of record shows BUN creeping up over past year (40-50) • PE & Neuro Exam • Can’t assess vision ;-) • Short stride rear legs • CP deficits worse on L • Hip pain bilateral • Very brisk bilateral patellar reflexes • Lesion – forebrain, cervical, TL, LS • CBC – normal • GHP/lytes – BUN 54 • UA – SG 1.017, culture negative

  29. Lucky • Dx Plan – Episodes of Panic • Look for pain • No new pain found on PE • Abdominal US - normal • Look for metastasis • Chest x-rays and Abd US normal • Blood Pressure 220/110 • CSF tap/MRI discussed • Spinal films – cervical and TL normal • No sedation • IVDDz L6-7 L7-S1, LS instability, severe hip dysplasia

  30. Lucky • Tx Plan – New Problems • CRF • K/D diet • Fish oil • CCD • Antioxidants and fish oil • LS Instability – no new treatment • Hypertension • hydralazine & rechecks of BUN and BP • Despite controlling hypertension, episodes of panic continued • Referring vet tried short course of decreasing pred in case of brain tumor

  31. Lucky A few weeks later…. • CC – acute collapse – lifeless and pale • PE – very pale mucous membranes, weak pulses, can’t do neuro exam • CBC – HCT 11%, retics 8% (>100,000) • GHP & lytes – BUN 280, creat 7, phos 11, albumin 1.4, globulins 1.6 • UA – SG 1.017, sediment quiet, protein negative • Fecal – no evidence of blood • 1 drop blood + 1 drop saline – no autoagglutination

  32. Lucky • New Diagnoses: • acute exacerbation of CRF • Regenerative anemia • Further diagnostics: • Chest x-rays & abdominal US normal • Coagulation profile normal • Urine culture negative • Tx: • Whole blood transfusion, IV fluids 2x, IV ampicillin, Aluminum hydroxide PO, Omeprazole, sucralfate • That afternoon – profuse black stools • Dx – GI blood loss

  33. Lucky Three days later… • Lucky needs another transfusion • He is still passing melena • Surgery/endoscopy to resect/cauterize the ulcer declined • Barium PO Over the next week… • BUN falls to 100ish, creat 4ish, phos normal • Bleeding stops, PCV low 30’s • Remains anorectic Lucky goes home…

  34. Lucky • Owner force feeds for 2 weeks • Lucky starts eating • Lucky lives a happy life again 6 months later… • Lucky starts having seizures, and is euthanized • No Necropsy Don’t give Pred and NSAIDs together, especially when there is CRF

  35. Lucky Things that could have avoided this problem… • Don’t do this on purpose • Tech review medications at the beginning of each visit • Always get updated records when seeing a client that also uses another vet • Always give drug handouts listing side effects when new drugs are prescribed

  36. Intervertebral Disc Disease Progressive Myelomalacia • 5-10% of dog who lose deep pain • Hemorrhagic necrosis and softening of the spinal cord • Ascends and descends through the spinal cord (first sign?) • HINT: cranial migration of panniculus • Flaccid abdominal muscles • Migrating flaccid paralysis • Eventual respiratory paralysis • Grave prognosis

  37. Intervertebral Disc Disease Spinal Walking • dogs can begin walking reflexively, with no spinal cord recovery • Ambulation with no deep pain • Toes are subject to injury from dragging • Usually remain incontinent

  38. Intervertebral Disc Disease Post-Operative Care • Physical Therapy – 5 Steps • Step One – TID until weight bearing • Cold pack incision 10 minutes TID • Until incision cool to touch • Passive range of motion exercises • Massage affected limb muscles • Step Two – TID until limb motion • Standing exercises • Neuromuscular stimulation • Step Three – BID until walking • Weight shifting exercises • Assisted walking • Swimming, underwater treadmill

  39. Intervertebral Disc Disease Post-Operative Care • Physical Therapy – 5 Steps • Step Four - BID • Sit to stand exercises • Balance and coordination exercises • Walks of increasing length • Step 5 - SID • Increased intensity walking and swimming • It can take 6 months to get to 100% recovery

  40. Intervertebral Disc Disease Post-Operative Care • Bladder management • UMN bladder (drugs?) • Alpha blockers to relax the sphincter • Phenoxybenzamine 5-15 mg PO SID-BID • Prazosin 1 mg/30 lbs PO SID-TID • Skeletal muscle relaxants • Diazepam • Dantrolene • Bethanechol only if bladder flaccid • 2.5-25 mg PO TID • 3 days after phenoxybenzamine • Express or catheterize TID-QID

  41. Intervertebral Disc Disease Post-Operative Care • Bladder management • LMN bladder • Bethanechol • Alpha blocker if needed • Express or catheterize TID-QID (which?) • Intermittent catheterization carries no more risk for UTI than manual expression • Indwelling catheter only if no other option • Large female with bladder difficult to express • Aggressive dog • To manage urine scalding

  42. Intervertebral Disc Disease Post-Operative Care • Bladder management • Monitor for UTI • UA once monthly until urinating on own • Then q4-6 months until spinal cord disease resolves • Urine culture q6months

  43. Intervertebral Disc Disease Post-Operative Care • Analgesia • Preventing pressure sores • Padded beds (where?) • DogLeggs.com • Sling • Turn every 4 hours • Avoid urine leakage, keep skin dry • Watch for neurologic deterioration

  44. Wobbler Syndrome Aka Caudal Cervical Spondylomyelopathy Aka Cervical Vertebral Instability • Presentation • Middle aged to older large dogs • Onset & progression usually chronic • Occasionally acutely down • Cervical Myelopathy (neuro exam?) • Sensory ataxia, Postural deficits • Low neck carriage • Mild to moderate neck pain • UMN all 4 – pelvic worse • May have UMN bladder

  45. Wobbler Syndrome Diagnosis • Usually depends on myelography/CT/MRI with stress • Flexion, extension – make lesions worse • Perform with caution • linear traction - relieve lesions Treatment • Medical therapy may or may not work • Condition is usually progressive • Surgery may or may not work

  46. Wobbler Syndrome Prognosis • Generally good with surgery and intensive care • But not as good as type I disc • More like type II • Better if ambulatory • Worse if more than once disc space • 71% get worse for 2 days after surgery • Time to ambulation can be prolonged • 2.5 months to ambulation • 3.6 months to optimal results • Stabilizing and distracting one disc space may aggravate another • “domino effect” • Recurrence 20-30%

  47. Congenital Spinal Malformation Hemivertebrae • wedge shaped Butterfly vertebrae • Central vertebral body fails to form Block vertebrae • Fusion of two or more vertebrae Stenotic vertebral canal Transitional vertebrae • vertebrae of one spinal segment take on characteristics of another • Lumbarization of S1 & vice versa

  48. Congenital Spinal Malformation Presentation • Puppy to middle age • Hemivertebrae in “Screwtail breeds” • Bulldogs • Boston terriers • Some malformations are incidental findings • Much like Type II Disc Disease or Wobbler • Usually progressive • Occasional acute decompensation

  49. Congenital Spinal Malformation Treatment • Medical treatment if pain only or ambulatory with mild to moderate neuro deficits • Surgery if non-ambulatory • Because of abnormal anatomy of hemivertebrae, some surgeons think that surgery carries increased risk of destabilization • Some surgeons won’t cut as long as there is voluntary motor, unless medical therapy has failed for a really long time

  50. Zoey • Sig – 3 year old SF Pomeranian • Comes in for dental • Pre-A exam and bloodwork NSF • Dental and anesthetic recovery go fine • Between afternoon appointments, you tech takes you aside to let you know that Zoey can’t walk • Neuro exam • Mentation & CN normal • all 4 limbs inc tone with hyperreflexia, rear worse • No deep pain (lesion?)