Factors Associated with Multiple-Partner Fertility Among Fathers Cassandra Logan Jennifer Manlove Erum Ikramullah Emily Holcombe **Support for this research provided by NICHD**
Research Questions • Are family and individual socio-demographic factors associated with multiple-partner fertility among males? 2. Are characteristics of men’s first birth and first partner associated with their likelihood of experiencing multiple-partner fertility?
Research Questions 3. Do family, individual, and first birth characteristics differentiate men who experience multiple-partner fertility in only nonmarital relationships from those who experience multiple-partner fertility in at least one marital relationship?
Multiple-Partner Fertility: Definition and Context • Multiple-partner fertility is defined as having biological children with more than one partner • Resulting from demographic shifts in marriage patterns
Motivations for the Study • Little is known about multiple-partner fertility among fathers • Multiple-partner fertility is problematic for men and their partners • Multiple-partner fertility has potentially negative consequences for children
Conceptual Framework Individual Characteristics Multiple-Partner Fertility Characteristics of First Birth Family Background
Data • National Survey of Family Growth 2002 (NSFG2002) • Nationally representative cross-sectional survey of males and females aged 15-44 in 2002 • Analytic Sample • 1,731 men who reported at least one biological child • 316 men who reported fathering children with more than one woman • Females not included because births not linked to relationship histories
Methods • Descriptive and bivariate analyses • Logistic regression • DV: Multiple-partner fertility vs. Single-partner fertility • Multinomial logistic regression • DV: Three-level multiple-partner fertility variable by marital status • Nonmarital only multiple-partner fertility • Multiple-partner fertility with at least one marital birth • Single-partner fertility
Eight Percent of All Men Aged 15-44 in 2002 Have Had Children With Multiple Partners 1 Birth 2+ Births, Single-Partner Fertility No Births 2+ Births, Multiple-Partner Fertility
1st Dependent Variable: Multiple-Partner Fertility vs. Single-Partner Fertility Multiple-Partner Fertility N=316 Single-Partner Fertility N=1,415
Multiple-Partner Fertility Occurs Within Marital and Nonmarital Unions Marital Only Nonmarital Only Marital 1st Birth and >1 Nonmarital Birth Nonmarital 1st Birth and > 1 Marital Birth
2nd Dependent Variable: Multiple-Partner Fertility by Marital Status MPF With At Least 1 Marital Birth N=188 Nonmarital Only N=128 Single-Partner Fertility N=1,415
Prevalence of Marital and Nonmarital Multiple-Partner Fertility Varies By Cohort
Independent Variables Individual characteristics: • Age • Race/ethnicity • Foreign born status • Age at first sex Family background characteristics: • Respondents’ parents’ marital status at birth • Family structure at age 14 • Number of siblings • Mother’s labor force status when R was aged 5-15 • Parent education • Mother was a teen mom
Independent Variables Characteristics of first birth: • Age at birth • Whether R was married, cohabiting, or neither with the mother • Number of children with first mother
Research Question #1:Are family and individual socio-demographic factors associated with multiple-partner fertility among males?
Bivariate Results Men with multiple-partner fertility: • In their 40s • African-American • Born into “other” family structure • Large number of siblings • Mom worked full time • Mom had a first teen birth
Multivariate Analyses:Predictors of Multiple-Partner Fertility with Individual and Family Characteristics Controls
Research Question #2:Are characteristics of men’s first birth and first partner associated with their likelihood of experiencing multiple-partner fertility?
Prevalence of Multiple-Partner Fertility Declines With Older Age at Birth of First Child
Multivariate Analyses:Predictors of Multiple-Partner Fertility with all Controls
Research Question #3:Do family, individual, and first birth characteristics differentiate men who experience multiple-partner fertility in only nonmarital relationships from those who experience multiple-partner fertility in at least one marital relationship?
Bivariate Results Men with nonmarital only multiple-partner fertility: • Younger • African-American or Hispanic • Born to unmarried parents • Mom worked full time • Young age at 1st sex
Multivariate Analyses:Nonmarital Multiple-Partner Fertility vs. Multiple-Partner Fertility with at Least 1 Marital Birth
Multivariate Analyses: Multiple-Partner Fertility vs. Single-Partner Fertility
Limitations of Current Study • Recall bias: men may under-report fertility information • Small sample size does not allow us to differentiate marital-only multiple-partner fertility
Summary of Findings • 8% of males and 18% of fathers experience multiple-partner fertility • One in four births are to men who have had children with multiple partners • Multiple-partner fertility occurs to men with varied relationship histories
Summary of Findings • Socio-demographic factors are associated with multiple-partner fertility (age, race/ethnicity, family structure) • Racial and ethnic minorities and men who had their first birth at a younger age have the greatest odds of nonmarital multiple-partner fertility
Summary of Findings • Early sexual experience is associated with multiple-partner fertility • Programs effective at delaying early sex and childbearing may help to reduce multiple-partner fertility
Summary of Findings • Timing and circumstances of first birth is linked to multiple-partner fertility • Programs effective at helping men to delay first births and fostering healthy marriage when they do have children may help reduce multiple-partner fertility