The term Islam“submission” to God isPeace – Salaam = Islam Islam = Peace Muslim = One who submits to Peace or a “Peacenik” Allah = Eloh of the Hebrew Bible/Old Testament Mecca = the most holy city #2 Medina, #3 Jerusalem
The Islamic World = 1.2 billion The Islamic World = 1.2 billion
Background: Abraham again, with Jesus added Abraham, Hagar, Ismail (Ishmael) – Ka’bah Central Role of Jesus for Muslims Angels
Muhammad “The Praised One” He was also active as a diplomat, merchant, philosopher, orator, legislator, general, reformer and according to the Muslim belief as an agent of divine action Biography: Muhammad The Prophet - History Channel (1 of 6)
Prophethood Muhammad as depicted in Medieval Europe
There is no God but God La ilaha illa Allah – There is no God only God Muhammadhu Rasul Allah - ...and Muhammad is God’s Messenger One woman’s explanation: The shahadah Only permissible depiction of God: Allah in Arabic • La ilaha illa Allah – There is no God only God • Muhammadhu Rasul Allah - ...and Muhammad is God’s Messenger • One woman’s explanation: • The shahadah
Al-Tawhid: Oneness of God God has no partners Closer than your juggler yet “wholly other” than human 7 heavens and paradise
The Five Pillars of Islam • The shahadah, "I testify that there is none worthy of worship except God and I testify that Muhammad is the Messenger of God." • Salah, or ritual prayer, which must be performed five times a day. Each salah is done facing towards the Kaaba in Mecca. Adhan (call to prayer) are broadcast publicly from local mosques at the appropriate times. The prayers are recited in the Arabic language, and consist of verses from the Qur'an. • Zakat, or alms-giving. This is the practice of giving based on accumulated wealth, and is obligatory for all Muslims who can afford it. The well-off owe to the needy because their wealth is seen as a "trust from God's bounty". • Sawm, or fasting during the month of Ramadan. Muslims must not eat or drink (among other things) from dawn to dusk during this month, and must be mindful of other sins. • The Hajj, which is the pilgrimage during the Islamic month of Dhu al-Hijjah in the city of Mecca.
Seventh Heaven: the basic criteria for salvation in afterlife is the belief in one God (Tawhid), Last Judgment, good deeds, and in all the messengers of Allah, as well as believing that Muhammad is the final prophet of God. Paradise itself is commonly described in the Qur'an. The highest level of Paradise is Firdaws (فردوس), which is where the prophets, themartyrs and the most truthful and pious people will dwell. In contrast to Jannah, the words Jahannam and Nār are used to refer to the concept of hell.
622 CE Hijira Muhammad and followers flee to Medina. Islamic calendar (AH, Anno Hegirae) begins. 624 CE Muslims successfully attack Meccan caravans at Badr. 625Muslims are defeated by Meccans at Uhud. 630Muslims capture Mecca. Ka'ba is cleansed, pilgrimage rites are Islamicized, tribes of Arabia vow allegiance to Muhammad 632 Death of Muhammad. Abu Bakr chosen as caliph.
Hadith: Modeling Muhammad’s life Hadith (الحديثtransliteration: al-ḥadīth, pl. aḥadīth; lit. "narrative") are oral traditions relating to the words and deeds of the Islamic prophetMuhammad.
Islamic law is known as the Sharī‘ah. The Sharī‘ah is based on the Qur'an and the Sunnah,
Sunni: the words and actions or example of the Prophet Muhammad. The Caliph khalīfah leader of the Islamic Ummah, an Islamic community ruled by 1st 4 caliphs under 1. Abu Bakr as-Siddiq, 2. Umar ibn al-Khattab and 3. Uthman ibn Affan...4: Ali
Sunni versus Shi’a: Who will succeed Muhammad as leader? Democracy or Genealogy? The First Islamic Civil War (656–661), fought against Ali ibn Abi Talib, the fourth and final of the Rightly-Guided Caliphs, caused by the controversial assassination of his predecessor, Uthman Ibn Affan.
Shi’at Ali: The Fourth Caliph: Ali in A.D. 656 the fourth Caliph, a man by the name of Ali, was elected as ruler of Islam. Ali came to power when his predecessor was murdered.
Fatimah: Daughter of the Prophet daughter of the Islamic prophetMuhammad from his first wife Khadija after the death of the Prophet she defended Ali's cause, opposed the election of Abu Bakr, and had violent disputes with him and particularly with Umar Muhammad's cousin, also had a desire to marry Fatimah but did not have the courage to approach Muhammad due to his poverty
Holy Genealogy The awaited 13th or hidden imam or “guide” of Islam
Sunni propaganda: Ali ibn Abi Talib "With regard to me, two categories of people will be ruined, namely he who loves me too much and the love takes him away from Rightfulness, and he who hates me too much and the hatred takes him away from Rightfulness. The best man with regard to me is he who is on the middle course. So be with him and be with the great majority (of Muslims) because Allaah's hand (of protection) is on keeping unity". Nahjul Balagha
Remembering martyr Husayn (Hussein) 626 680 CE Second Islamic Civil War, during the early Umayyad dynasty, following the death of the first caliph Muawiyah. succeeded upon his death in 680 by his son, Yazid whose first pposition came from Husayn ibn Ali, grandson of the prophet Muhammad and the son of the former 4th caliph Ali ibn Abi Talib, slain at the Battle of Karbala 680 CE.
Shi’a Islam (Shi’ites) 940 Muhammad al-Mahdi, the twelfth imam, disappears. Twelvers still await the future return of the "Hidden Imam."
Arab Islamic Empire (750-1055) 680 Death of Husayn marks beginning of the Shi'at Ali ("party of Ali") or Shi'a sect. 732 Muslim empire reaches its furthest extent. Battle of Tours prevents further advance northwards during Ummayyad Caliphate.
Islamic Golden Age:700 A.D. to 1600 Like refined sugar and coffee Yum! Thanks Islamic culture!
Philosophy – Islamic gift to Europe 980-1037 Life of Ibn Sina or Avicenna, Iranian physician and Aristotelian philosopher. He sought to reconcile rational philosophy with Islamic theology. His aim was to prove the existence of God and his creation of the world scientifically and through reason and logic Ibn Sīnā is regarded as a father of modern medicine
Ibn Rushd known to the West as Averroes: there is no conflict between religion and philosophy, rather that they are different ways of reaching the same truth. born in Córdoba, modern daySpain, and died in Marrakech, modern day Morocco. Italian artist Andrea di Bonaiuto (Florence, second half of the 14th century) "existence precedes essence", a key foundational concept of existentialism, can also be found in the works of Ibn Rushd, as a reaction to Ibn Sina's concept of "essence precedes existence"
The Role of Womensee student Vjolca’s Zekiri’s work Women in Islam according to the Qur'an
Pilgrim Woman Bible Fashions for Woman: Abrahamic Styles….. Mennonite Woman
No less than the queen of heaven, the Virgin Mary wears Bible Fashions
Sufism 1100-1200s Sufi orders (turuq) are founded. Fanah: The annihilation of the self in favor of God. Click here for Bennet Hoffman’s expose: Buddhism influences Islam: Sufism Two Pitchers
Islamic architecture Ottomon Period: Blue Mosque 1616 left SultanSuleiman I mosque: 1557 right
The British-led Egyptian Expeditionary Force, commanded by Edmund Allenby, captured Jerusalem on 9 December, 1917 and occupied the whole of the Levant following the defeat of Turkish forces in Palestine at the Battle of Megiddo in September 1918