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Biological community Administration

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  1. Ecosystem Management

  2. Keys to Reserve Management Once a reserve is established, the job has only begun – 4 major factors must be managed to maintain reserve populations: 1. Human visitors 2. Natural disturbances 3. Water regimes 4. Exotic species and overabundant natives

  3. Carbonton Dam, Deep River, NC

  4. Tamarisk or salt cedar

  5. Tamarisk study and removal

  6. Glen Canyon Dam Release

  7. Grand Canyon Burro Removal

  8. Mountain Goat - Oreamnos americanus

  9. Distribution of Mountain Goats

  10. The Olympic Mountain endemics Campanula piperi (bellfiower; upper) and Viola flettii (Flett's violet) occupy rock crevices in the subalpine and alpine zones of the Olympic Mountains. The bellflower is known to be eaten by mountain goats (photos from NPS).

  11. Brazilian Pepper Tree

  12. Brazilian Pepper tree in Florida

  13. Brazilian Pepper Tree in the Everglades

  14. Restoration Ecology

  15. What is ecological restoration? A definition: Ecological restoration is the process of assisting the recovery of an ecosystem that has been degraded, damaged, or destroyed. - Society for Ecological Restoration Primer 2002

  16. Restoration Ecology • restoration ecology – the field of study that provides the scientific background and underpinnings for practical ecological restoration • ideally the restoration will return normal ecosystem function to an area and hopefully the project will also have social or economic value to humans

  17. 1996 – Montana Wolf Reintroduction Protest

  18. Yellowstone Wolf Pack Locations

  19. Yellowstone Wolf Pack Locations

  20. Yellowstone Wolf Pack Locations

  21. Yellowstone Wolf

  22. Yellowstone Wolf Prey

  23. Salt marsh restoration plan in Rhode Island

  24. Phragmites and Spartina

  25. Mine Reclamation

  26. Mine reclamation in progress

  27. Mitigation • Mitigation is the alleviation of some process • Mitigation is related to restoration - mitigation is sometimes required when a group wants to develop a wild area such as a wetland and thus destroy the wetland; the group must then agree to build similar habitat somewhere else to replace what is being destroyed

  28. Mitigation with Woodrow Wilson Bridge Construction

  29. 1967 Torrey Canyon Oil spill

  30. 1989 – Exxon Valdez oil spill

  31. 1989 – Exxon Valdez oil spill

  32. Exxon Valdez oil spill clean efforts

  33. Tony Bradshaw – pioneer restorationist

  34. The general process of repairing damaged ecosystems • Restoration - here we attempt to put back exactly what existed in the ecosystem prior to the disturbance • Rehabilitation - here we attempt to put back most of what existed in the ecosystem prior to the disturbance, but we don't try to put everything back • Replacement - no attempt is made to restore what was lost - here we replace the original ecosystem with another one – sometimes reclamation projects fit here • Recovery or neglect - here we allow nature to take its course - depend upon natural processes of seed dispersal and germination to start plants, natural dispersal of animals to repopulate the area • Enhancement - activity designed to improve the ecosystem, even if the change is fairly minimal

  35. Walnut Creek NWR – now named Neil Smith NWR

  36. Neil Smith National Wildlife Refuge

  37. Neil Smith NWR Prairie

  38. Neil Smith NWR Prairie

  39. Replacement – Fresh Kills Landfill

  40. Enhancement

  41. Przewalski’s Horse or Takh

  42. Przewalski’s Horse or Takh

  43. Przewalski’s horse reserves – Mongolia and Uzbekistan

  44. When reintroducing animals, we have learned that: 1. larger founder populations are more successful 2. habitat suitability is important 3. increased number and sizes of clutches (litters) enhances success of establishment 4. herbivores are more successfully established than carnivores 5. competing species in an area may prevent successful establishment