An Endeavor Guide Of Ethiopia Development Week 2010 John Sutton and Keeps an eye on Soderbom - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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An Endeavor Guide Of Ethiopia Development Week 2010 John Sutton and Keeps an eye on Soderbom

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  1. An Enterprise Map Of Ethiopia Growth Week 2010 John Sutton and Mans Soderbom

  2. Motivation • Lack of adequate and uniform description of the capabilities of existing enterprises • Need for discussions of enterprise policy to be grounded in a shared, correct understanding of this

  3. Appropriate Descriptions • Cost and Timescale of full surveys • What surveys do not capture • The body of knowledge in advanced industrial economies • The limited but specific information that is important to policy analysis • Towards a design that is fast and inexpensive

  4. Scope and Coverage • Profile each of the major industries • Excludes services and financial sector • Profile the leading firms in each industry (History, origins, current capabilities,etc.) • Identify clusters of mid-size firms and their activities • Problems and challenges

  5. Overview and Motivation • 78% of exports from a few primary industries (Coffee, Oilseeds, Chat, etc.) • 14 firms account for over half of this • 22% from secondary (inc.agribusiness) • (Cut flowers, Leather, Meat products, Clothing/Textiles, etc.) • 19 firms account for over half of this

  6. Figure 1

  7. Structure • Profile 50 ‘Leading Firms’ distributed across these key industries • Industry profile includes brief profiles of a few representative mid-size firms in each sub-market

  8. Example • Steel, Engineering and Assembly • Sub-markets include: • A : Galvanized coil/sheet, Corrugated sheet, Re-bars etc. • B: Engineering products, Car/Truck bodies, etc. • C: Hand Tools and other final products

  9. Focus • Basic information on size, product range, ownership,etc • First focus : where capabilities came from • Second focus : Supply chains…inputs , origin by category ; sales, what and to whom.

  10. Rationale • What can be locally sourced ? • What can be locally sold ? • Development of enterprises and development of domestic supply chains • Development of enterprises within international supply chains • Two faces of supply chains

  11. The big picture : Where capabilities come from… • Home grown successes (Bharat Forge) • From Trading to Manufacturing ( Steel Wire in Zambia) • From Equipment Suppliers ( Packaged Orange Juice in Ethiopia) • From Supply Chains (Auto Components in India)

  12. The First Theme • Origins of Capabilities of Leading Firms • Three main categories • (a) Trading to Manufacturing • (b) Public sector origin • (c) Foreign firms

  13. Public Sector (11) Local Traders (23) Foreign Origin (9) Local Managers (2) Small Local Firm (3) Other (2) Origins of 50 Leading Companies

  14. Trading to Manufacturing • Of 50 Leading firms, 23 had their origin here, • While 2 more were founded by Ethiopian managers who left their company to found a new firm

  15. Trading to Manufacturing:Examples • Ayele Dejene Gugsa, Nigatwa Gezahegn (Modjo) • Yohannes Sisay ,Isayas Teklu (Yesu) • Alem Mengistu (Organic Export Abbatoir) • Said Kassie, founder of SECA • Crown,GC and Woinu companies • Ahadu conglomerate(Wendemneh family)

  16. ‘Growth of Firms ’ Stories • Only three of these leading firms emerged from the small firm sector • Is this surprising ? Special to Ethiopia? • Lessons from elsewhere; • Trader to exporter: Mohan Group…where do you source wire rod? • A story from the US : When DO small firms grow?

  17. Profitability and Finance • Some import substitution ventures can be extremely profitable… • The slow takeup of such opportunities reflects, in part, problems of raising medium term finance… • And this in turn biasses investments in favour of trading rather than manufacturing

  18. Finance for Startups • Two views: • (a) licence one or more foreign banks • (b) the present initiative …. • Loan officers…lessons from Azerbaijan

  19. Expanding existing capabilities • Supply and demand in sugar • New private sector firms in Cement • Apparent matches: high imports, existing capabilities (Soaps and detergents, Plastics, etc.)

  20. Origins of Capabilities: Part II • About one quarter of the ‘50 leading firms’ have foreign origins • What is happenning to FDI today ? • Projected employment in current new ventures is 26,000….more than the total employment in these 50 leading firms

  21. Table 1: FDI flows, and FDI stock for Ethiopia, selected years Source: UNCTAD, World Investment Report 2009

  22. Table 2: Number of FDI Projects by Industry and Country

  23. High Dispersion • 14 industries • 37 countries • But four countries and six industries dominate

  24. Four Countries, Six industries • China(Clothing/textiles, Building materials, Plastics, Metals/Engineering) • India(FoodProcessing/Plastics) • Italy(Clothing/Textiles,Leather,and Metals/Engineering) • Saudi Arabia(FoodProcessing, Clothing/Textiles)

  25. Table 3: Projected Employment in FDI Projects by Industry and Country

  26. Policies for FDI • Two extremes… • (a) permissive • (b) supportive • The Irish experience with autonomous agencies

  27. Specific Industry Themes • Cement and Sugar : Government to Private sector links • Plastics: missed opportunities? • Sub-standard imports (plastics,metals) • Leather : Re-capturing lost ground?

  28. The big picture : Where capabilities come from… • Home grown successes (Bharat Forge) • From Trading to Manufacturing ( Steel Wire in Zambia) • From Equipment Suppliers ( Packaged Orange Juice in Ethiopia) • From Supply Chains (Auto Components in India)

  29. Most of Manufacturing Employment in SME Sector: • 43,300 small scale firms, total employment 139,000. • About 1 million cottage/handicraft enterprises (don’t use electricity), 1.3 million people. (Data for 2002) • 800,0000 urban informal sector non-farm firms (mfg, trade, services), 1 million persons engaged. • Compare to 134,000 workers in formal mfg firms.

  30. The research question: • Can the small and medium scale enterprise (SME) sector be a source of sustained growth in the private sector & Ethiopia? The answer: • In its current form - no. • The type of products produced are basic, better suited for large-scale production. • The value-added generated is low. • A small firm is unlikely to grow to become large. • Of course, the SME still has an important role to play, providing subsistence for unskilled workers.

  31. Ethiopia’s Investment Climate • Survey data on managers’ perceptions indicate that the investment climate in Ethiopia improved a lot between 2001 & 2007 (World Bank, 2009). • Share of firms complaining about the IC is lower for Ethiopia than the low-income international averages. • On ‘ease of doing business’, Ethiopia ranks quite high amongst low-income countries 31

  32. Manufacturing: Enormous differences in VAD per worker across firms of differing size 32

  33. Size distribution heavily skewed towards low-VAD firms Imagine the gains a structural shift might bring about. 33

  34. Do small firms grow and become large? • Analysis of the new entrants in formal manufacturing in 1998. • There were 55 such new entrants in 1998. • The size distribution at startup: 34

  35. Do small firms grow and become large? Dynamics of new entrants: • It happens, but it’s very unusual. • The largest 1998 entrant still the largest firm in 2008. • 29% survive. • High exit rates among small firms 35

  36. Growth conditional on survival is high: 36

  37. Predicted employment 10 years after startup • Regression analysis of growth and survival as dependent on initial size. • Small firms have higher exit rates; also, conditional on survival, they have high growth rates. • Net effect on long term employment: 37

  38. Tomorrow’s large firms won’t be found amongst today’s small firms • Large firms start large. Resources: • Finance / physical capital • Management skills. • Ability to run large firm. • Ability to act in global network – communication, long distance collaboration, etc. • Today’s small scale entrepreneurs typically don’t have those skills. 38