Genocide & Lessons Learned: The Holocaust and Rwanda
Genocide • the deliberate and systematic destruction of a racial, political, or cultural group • Examples: Holocaust, Rwanda, Armenians, Bosnia, Sudan Concentration Camp for Bosnian Muslims and Croats
Points for discussion • Unfair to truly compare genocides- experiences are different • Purpose of this presentation- • look at common threads among genocidal actions to prevent in the future • see what, if anything the world has learned from the Holocaust • learn about the atrocities that occurred in Rwanda
Nov. 1938-May 1945 April-July 1994 Comparing Rwanda and the Jewish Holocaust- YEARS
Analyzing the years… • What difference do you see in the time that these genocides occurred? • What similarities did you see in the photos? • What differences did you see in the photos?
Jews- men, women, children, practicing and non-practicing Jews (2% of European pop.) Tutsis- Rwandan tribe, men, women, children (9% of pop.) Comparing Rwanda and the Jewish Holocaust- POPULATION
Victim groups… • What similarities did you see in the photos? • What do the two victim groups have in common? • Any differences between the two victim groups?
Antisemitism- existed for 2,000 years. Jews were established professionals in Germany. Seen as religious and ethnic group (racial group by Nazis). Rwanda- Ethnic conflict not new. For centuries, Tutsis had mainly been the privileged and ruling class (imposed by imperialism) while Hutus were usually the working class. Comparing Rwanda and the Jewish Holocaust- HATRED
Persecution… • What about these victim groups caused anger within their perpetrators? • How did the hatred of Jews and Tutsis differ?
Nazi soldiers, officers, civilians Shooting squads, gassing/crematoria Hutu villagers- neighbors, friends Firearms, machetes, and a variety of garden implements Comparing Rwanda and the Jewish Holocaust- METHODS USED
Methods… • In both cases, the ruling group/extremists needed the help of who to carry out their genocide? • What differences existed in the manner these genocides were carried out?
Approximately 6 million Jews, 11 million total Approximately 800,000 Tutsis in 100 days Comparing Rwanda and the Jewish Holocaust- NUMBERS PERISHED
Numbers… • Remember, behind each number you read is a real person with a real family and real hopes and dreams • Mass graves used in both instances • How were the Nazis and Hutu extremists able to carry out these genocides so quickly?
Afterwards… • What awaited survivors after liberation or after they fled the country? • What condition were the camps in? • What options did survivors have for resettlement?
President Bush: “It's time for the U.S. to apologize and recognize all former eugenics victims to bring a sense of closure to this issue”. President Clinton: "We come here today partly in recognition of the fact that we in the United States and the world community did not do as much as we could have and should have done to try to limit what occurred" in Rwanda. Comparing Rwanda and the Jewish Holocaust- U.S. APOLOGIES
Apologies… • Are these apologies enough for the American failure to act on behalf of these victims? • Is there anything that the U.S. could say or do to make it right?