Chemistry DMA Write out the abbreviated electron configuration for the following elements: Li [He]2s1 O Ne Na S [Ne]3s23p4 Ar K Se Kr [Ar]4s23d104p6 Rb Te Xe Cs [Xe]6s1 Po Rn
Ions Identity and Change Unit
Soluble/Insoluble A soluble substance can be dissolved. If something will not dissolve, it is insoluble. If two or more chemicals are mixed in a solution and a solid appears, the solid is insoluble. In this case, the solid is called a precipitate.
Solution Solutions are mixtures of solvents and solutes. Solvents are substances that dissolve – they cause another substance to disperse, disintegrate, break apart. Solutes are substances that dissolve in solvents. Solutes break apart in solvents.
Diagram the demo set-up Light bulb Beaker Magnetic stir plate
Ion A charged particle (either a single atom or a molecule) Cation A positively charged particleNa+ H+ Ca2+ Cu2+ NH4+ Anion A negatively charged particleCl- O2- OH- NO3- SO42-
Valence Electron An electron in the outermost energy level for an atom. The electrons that interact when atoms form bonds. H Li Na C N F
Valence electrons The s and p electrons in the outermost primary energy level. There are 2 valence electrons for the 1st primary energy level. (Period 1) There are 8 valence electrons in every other primary energy level. (Periods 2-7)
Bohr Models of Atoms and Ions Sodium atom Sodium ion 11 protons11 protons Na Na 11 electrons 10 electrons Chlorine atom Chlorine ion 17 protons17 protons Cl Cl 17 electrons 18 electrons
Ionic bond A bond formed by the attraction between a cation and an anion. Ionic bonds create an ionic compound. Although the cations and anions they are made from have positive and negative charges, ionic compounds have a balance of positive and negative charges, and hence, no net charge. Na Na Cl Cl
Valence Electrons Practice Identify the number of valence electrons in each of the following elements: Be B N F Mg Al P Cl Ca As Br Sr I
Dot diagram A graphic representation of the number and placement of valence electrons for an atom or ion.
VSEPR theory Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion A theory based on experimental observations that suggests valence electrons occur in pairs that separate as far as possible three dimensionally from other pairs in the same valence shell.
Dot diagram practice Draw dot diagrams for the following elements: Li B N F Ne Na Si S Ar Ca Ga Ge As Br Rb Sn Te Xe Ba Tl Bi Po At
Dot diagram practice Draw dot diagrams for the following anions: H- N3- O2- F- P3- S2- Cl- Se2- Br- I-
Ionic compounds: Chemical combinations of two or more different elements in a fixed ratio. Contain ions which are attracted to each other due to opposite electrical charges. Have no net charge due to balancing of the charges on the cation (+) and anion (-). Ionic compounds are generally formed between a metallic cation and an anion.
Ionic bond: A chemical bond resulting from the transfer of electrons from one bonding atom to another. A bond involving ions. NaClNa+Cl-
sodium chloride sodium bromide potassium iodide rubidium bromide calcium sulfide strontium oxide sodium sulfide sodium nitride calcium chloride barium iodide aluminum chloride aluminum oxide Nomenclature: Names to Formulas
NaCl NaBr KI RbBr CaS SrO Na2S Na3N CaCl2 BaI2 AlCl3 Al2O3 Nomenclature: Names to Formulas
copper (I) chloride copper (I) bromide iron (II) sulfide lead (II) oxide calcium carbonate strontium sulfate copper (I) sulfide mercury (I) chloride calcium nitrate barium hydroxide aluminum phosphate nickel (II) phosphate Nomenclature: Names to Formulas
CuCl CuBr FeS PbO CaCO3 SrSO4 Cu2S Hg2Cl2 Ca(NO3)2 Ba(OH)2 AlPO4 Ni3(PO4)2 Nomenclature: Names to Formulas
Molecular Weight Sum of the atomic masses of all atoms represented in a chemical formula, represented either in atomic mass units (amu) or g
KI MgS NaOH KNO3 CaSO4 NaClO4 NaHCO3 Zn(NO3)2 SrCl2 Ba3(PO4)2 (NH4)2Cr2O7 H2O2 Nomenclature: Formulas to Names
potassium iodide165.998 magnesium sulfide56.370 sodium hydroxide 39.997 potassium nitrate 94.102 calcium sulfate 136.139 sodium perchlorate78.442 sodium hydrogen carbonate 161.998 zinc nitrate 127.394 strontium chloride158.526 barium phosphate 601.930 ammonium dichromate 252.062 hydrogen peroxide 33.996 Nomenclature: Formulas to Names
CuO Cu(OH)2 NiCO3 Al(NO3)3 NiCl2 AgC2H3O2 FeSO4 Fe2(SO4)3 Pb(NO3)2 Hg2Cl2 HgCl2 Cu2O Nomenclature: Formulas to Names
copper (II) oxide copper (II) hydroxide nickel (II) carbonate aluminum nitrate nickel (II) chloride silver acetate iron (II) sulfate iron (III) sulfate lead (II) nitrate mercury (I) chloride mercury (II) chloride copper (I) oxide Nomenclature: Formulas to Names
Distilled Water Water + glucose Water + starch Water + sodium chloride Water + sodium hydroxide Water + copper (II) nitrate Water + copper (II) nitrate + sodium hydroxide
Lewis structures A system designed by American chemist Gilbert Lewis to demonstrate the interactions of valence electrons in the formation of compounds. F Cl C Cl F
Ionic Compounds: Lewis Structures Draw Lewis Structures for the following ionic compounds: NaCl KF RbBr CsI MgO CaS Na2O K2S AlP Mg3N2 Na3N KH