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Transistors

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  1. Transistors Transfer Resistor Chapter 9

  2. Bipolar Transistors Collector Base Emitter Two PN junctions joined together Two types available – NPN and PNP The regions (from top to bottom) are called the collector (C), the base (B), and the emitter (E)

  3. Operation • Begin by reverse biasing the CB junction • Here we are showing an NPN transistor as an example • Now we apply a small forward bias on the emitter-base junction • Electrons are pushed into the base, which then quickly flow to the collector • The result is a large emitter-collector electron current (conventional current is C-E) which is maintained by a small E-B voltage • Some of the electrons pushed into the base by the forward bias E-B voltage end up depleting holes in that junction • This would eventually destroy the junction if we didn’t replenish the holes • The electrons that might do this are drawn off as a base current

  4. Currents

  5. Conventional View

  6. Origin of the names • the Emitter 'emits' the electrons which pass through the device • the Collector 'collects' them again once they've passed through the Base • ...and the Base?...

  7. Original Manufacture

  8. Base Thickness • The thickness of the unmodified Base region has to be just right. • Too thin, and the Base would essentially vanish. The Emitter and Collector would then form a continuous piece of semiconductor, so current would flow between them whatever the base potential. • Too thick, and electrons entering the Base from the Emitter wouldn't notice the Collector as it would be too far away. So then, the current would all be between the Emitter and the Base, and there'd be no Emitter-Collector current.

  9. Amplification Properties • The C-B voltage junction operates near breakdown. • This ensures that a small E-B voltage causes avalanche • Large current through the device

  10. Common Base NPN

  11. Common Emitter NPN

  12. Common Collector NPN How does IC vary with VCE for various IB? Note that both dc sources are variable Set VBB to establish a certain IB

  13. Collector Characteristic Curve • If VCC = 0, then IC = 0 and VCE = 0 • As VCC↑ both VCE and IC↑ • When VCE 0.7 V, base-collector becomes reverse-biased and IC reaches full value (IC = bIB) • IC ~ constant as VCE↑. There is a slight increase of IC due to the widening of the depletion zone (BC) giving fewer holes for recombinations with e¯ in base. • Since IC = bIB, different base currents produce different IC plateaus.

  14. NPN Characteristic Curves

  15. PNP Characteristic Curves

  16. Load Line Slope of the load line is 1/RL For a constant load, stepping IB gives different currents (IC) predicted by where the load line crosses the characteristic curve. IC = bIBworks so long as the load line intersects on the plateau region of the curve.

  17. Cut-off Saturation and Cut-off Note that the load line intersects the 75 mA curve below the plateau region. This is saturation and IC = bIB doesn’t work in this region.

  18. Example • We adjust the base current to 200mA andnote that this transistor has ab= 100 • Then IC =bIB = 100(200 X 10-6A) = 20 mA • Notice that we can use Kirchhoff’s voltage law around the right side of the circuit • VCE = VCC – ICRC = 10 V – (20 mA)(220W) = 10 V – 4.4 V = 5.6 V

  19. Example • Now adjust IB to 300mA • Now we get IC = 30 mA • And VCE = 10 V – (30 mA)(220W) = 3.4 V • Finally, adjust IB = 400mA • IB = 40 mA and VCE = 1.2 V

  20. Plot the load line

  21. Gain as a function of IC As temperature increases, the gain increases for all current values.

  22. Operating Limits • There will be a limit on the dissipated power • PD(max) = VCEIC • VCE and IC were the parameters plotted on the characteristic curve. • If there is a voltage limit (VCE(max)), then you can compute the IC that results • If there is a current limit (IC(max)), then you can compute the VCE that results

  23. Example • Assume PD(max) = 0.5 W VCE(max) = 20 V IC(max) = 50 mA

  24. Operating Range Operating Range

  25. Voltage Amplifiers Common Base PNP Now we have added an ac source The biasing of the junctions are: BE is forward biased by VBB - thus a small resistance BC is reverse biased by VCC – and a large resistance Since IB is small, IC IE

  26. Equivalent ac Circuit rE = internal ac emitter resistance IE = Vin/rE (Ohm’s Law) Vout = ICRC IERC Recall the name – transfer resistor

  27. Current Gains • Common Base • a = IC/IE < 1 • Common Emitter • b = IC/IB

  28. Example • If b = 50, then a = 50/51 = 0.98 • Recall a < 1 • Rearranging, b = a + ab b(1-a) = a b = a/(1-a)

  29. Transistors as Switches

  30. The operating points We can control the base current using VBB (we don’t actually use a physical switch). The circuit then acts as a high speed switch.

  31. Details • In Cut-off • All currents are zero and VCE = VCC • In Saturation • IB big enough to produce IC(sat)bIB • Using Kirchhoff’s Voltage Law through the ground loop • VCC = VCE(sat) + IC(sat)RC • but VCE(sat) is very small (few tenths), so • IC(sat)VCC/RC

  32. Example • What is VCE when Vin = 0 V? • Ans. VCE = VCC = 10 V • b) What minimum value of IB is required to saturate the transistor if b = 200? Take VCE(sat) = 0 V IC(sat) VCC/RC = 10 V/1000 W = 10 mA Then, IB = IC(sat)/b = 10 mA/200 = 0.05mA

  33. LED Example If a square wave is input for VBB, then the LED will be on when the input is high, and off when the input is low.

  34. Transistors with ac Input Assume that b is such that IC varies between 20 and 40 mA. The transistor is constantly changing curves along the load line.

  35. Pt. A corresponds to the positive peak. Pt. B corresponds to the negative peak. This graph shows ideal operation.

  36. Driven to saturation Driven into Cutoff Distortion • The location of the point Q (size of the dc source on input) may cause an operating point to lie outside of the active range.

  37. Base Biasing • It is usually not necessary to provide two sources for biasing the transistor. The red arrows follow the base-emitter part of the circuit, which contains the resistor RB. The voltage drop across RB is VCC – VBE (Kirchhoff’s Voltage Law). The base current is then… and IC = bIB

  38. Base Biasing • Use Kirchhoff’s Voltage Law on the black arrowed loop of the circuit VCC = ICRC + VCE So, VCE = VCC – ICRC VCE = VCC – bIBRC • Disadvantge • b occurs in the equation for both VCE and IC • But b varies – thus so do VCE and IC • This shifts the Q-point (b-dpendent)

  39. Example • Let RC = 560 W @ 25 °C b = 100 RB = 100 kW @ 75 °C b = 150 VCC = +12 V @ 75 °C IB is the same IC = 16.95 mA VCE = 2.51 V IC increases by 50% VCE decreases by 56%

  40. Transistor Amplifiers • Amplification • The process of increasing the strength of a signal. • The result of controlling a relatively large quantity of current (output) with a small quantity of current (input). • Amplifier • Device use to increase the current, voltage, or power of the input signal without appreciably altering the essential quality.

  41. Class A • Entire input waveform is faithfully reproduced. • Transistor spends its entire time in the active mode • Never reaches either cutoff or saturation. • Drive the transistor exactly halfway between cutoff and saturation. • Transistor is always on – always dissipating power – can be quite inefficient

  42. Class A

  43. Class B • No DC bias voltage • The transistor spends half its time in active mode and the other half in cutoff

  44. Push-pull Pair Transistor Q1 "pushes" (drives the output voltage in a positive direction with respect to ground), while transistor Q2 "pulls" the output voltage (in a negative direction, toward 0 volts with respect to ground). Individually, each of these transistors is operating in class B mode, active only for one-half of the input waveform cycle. Together, however, they function as a team to produce an output waveform identical in shape to the input waveform.

  45. Class AB • Between Class A (100% operation) and Class B (50% operation).

  46. Class C IC flows for less than half then cycle. Usually get more gain in Class B and C, but more distortion

  47. Common Emitter Transistor Amplifier Notice that VBB forward biases the emitter-base junction and dc current flows through the circuit at all times The class of the amplifier is determined by VBB with respect to the input signal. Signal that adds to VBB causes transistor current to increase Signal that subtracts from VBB causes transistor current to decrease

  48. Details • At positive peak of input, VBB is adding to the input • Resistance in the transistor is reduced • Current in the circuit increases • Larger current means more voltage drop across RC (VRC = IRC) • Larger voltage drop across RC leaves less voltage to be dropped across the transistor • We take the output VCE – as input increases, VCE decreases.

  49. More details • As the input goes to the negative peak • Transistor resistance increases • Less current flows • Less voltage is dropped across RC • More voltage can be dropped across C-E • The result is a phase reversal • Feature of the common emitter amplifier • The closer VBB is to VCC, the larger the transistor current.

  50. PNP Common Emitter Amplifier