Section 16 Aldehydes and Ketones I. Nucleophilic Expansion to the Carbonyl Gathering - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Section 16 Aldehydes and Ketones I. Nucleophilic Expansion to the Carbonyl Gathering

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Section 16 Aldehydes and Ketones I. Nucleophilic Expansion to the Carbonyl Gathering

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  1. Chapter 16Aldehydes and Ketones I. Nucleophilic Addition to the Carbonyl Group

  2. Nomenclature of Aldehydes and Ketones • Aldehydes are named by replacing the -e of the corresponding parent alkane with -al • The aldehyde functional group is always carbon 1 and need not be numbered • Some of the common names of aldehydes are shown in parenthesis • Aldehyde functional groups bonded to a ring are named using the suffix carbaldehyde • Benzaldehyde is used more commonly than the name benzenecarbaldehyde Chapter 16

  3. Ketones are named by replacing the -e of the corresponding parent alkane with -one • The parent chain is numbered to give the ketone carbonyl the lowest possible number • In common nomenclature simple ketones are named by preceding the word ketone with the names of both groups attached to the ketone carbonyl • Common names of ketones that are also IUPAC names are shown below Chapter 16

  4. The methanoyl or formyl group (-CHO) and the ethanoyl or acetyl group (-COCH3) are examples of acyl groups Chapter 16

  5. Physical Properties • Molecules of aldehyde (or ketone) cannot hydrogen bond to each other • They rely only on intermolecular dipole-dipole interactions and therefore have lower boiling points than the corresponding alcohols • Aldehydes and ketones can form hydrogen bonds with water and therefore low molecular weight aldehydes and ketones have appreciable water solubility Chapter 16

  6. Synthesis of Aldehydes • Aldehydes by Oxidation of 1o Alcohols • Primary alcohols are oxidized to aldehydes by PCC • Aldehydes by Reduction of Acyl Chlorides, Esters and Nitriles • Reduction of carboxylic acid to aldehyde is impossible to stop at the aldehyde stage • Aldehydes are much more easily reduced than carboxylic acids Chapter 16

  7. Reduction to an aldehyde can be accomplished by using a more reactive carboxylic acid derivatives such as an acyl chloride, ester or nitrile and a less reactive hydride source • The use of a sterically hindered and therefore less reactive aluminum hydride reagent is important • Acid chlorides react with lithium tri-tert-butoxyaluminum hydride at low temperature to give aldehydes Chapter 16

  8. Hydride is transferred to the carbonyl carbon • As the carbonyl re-forms, the chloride (which is a good leaving group) leaves Chapter 16

  9. Reduction of an ester to an aldehyde can be accomplished at low temperature using DIBAL-H • As the carbonyl re-forms, an alkoxide leaving group departs Chapter 16

  10. Synthesis of Ketones • Ketones from Alkenes, Arenes, and 2o Alcohols • Ketones can be made from alkenes by ozonolysis • Aromatic ketones can be made by Friedel-Crafts Acylation • Ketones can be made from 2o alcohols by oxidation Chapter 16

  11. Ketones from Alkynes • Markovnikov hydration of an alkyne initially yields a vinyl alcohol (enol) which then rearranges rapidly to a ketone (keto) • The rearrangement is called a keto-enol tautomerization (Section 17.2) • This rearrangement is an equilibrium which usually favors the keto form Chapter 16

  12. Terminal alkynes yield ketones because of the Markovnikov regioselectivity of the hydration • Ethyne yields acetaldehyde • Internal alkynes give mixtures of ketones unless they are symmetrical Chapter 16

  13. Ketones from Lithium Dialkylcuprates • An acyl chloride can be coupled with a dialkylcuprate to yield a ketone (a variation of the Corey-Posner, Whitesides-House reaction) Chapter 16

  14. Ketones from Nitriles • Organolithium and Grignard reagents add to nitriles to form ketones • Addition does not occur twice because two negative charges on the nitrogen would result Chapter 16

  15. Solved Problem : Synthesize 5-nonanone using 1-butanol as your only starting material Chapter 16

  16. Nucleophilic Addition to the Carbonyl Groups • Addition of a nucleophile to a carbonyl carbon occurs because of the d+ charge at the carbon • Addition of strong nucleophiles such as hydride or Grignard reagents result in formation of a tetrahedral alkoxide intermediate • The carbonyl p electrons shift to oxygen to give the alkoxide • The carbonyl carbon changes from trigonal planar to tetrahedral Chapter 16

  17. An acid catalyst is used to facilitate reaction of weak nucleophiles with carbonyl groups • Protonating the carbonyl oxygen enhances the electrophilicity of the carbon Chapter 16

  18. Relative Reactivity: Aldehydes versus Ketones • Aldehydes are generally more reactive than ketones • The tetrahedral carbon resulting from addition to an aldehyde is less sterically hindered than the tetrahedral carbon resulting from addition to a ketone • Aldehyde carbonyl groups are more electron deficient because they have only one electron-donating group attached to the carbonyl carbon Chapter 16

  19. The Addition of Alcohols: Hemiacetals and Acetals • Hemiacetals • An aldehyde or ketone dissolved in an alcohol will form an equilibrium mixture containing the corresponding hemiacetal • A hemiacetal has a hydroxyl and alkoxyl group on the same carbon • Acylic hemiacetals are generally not stable, however, cyclic five- and six-membered ring hemiacetals are Chapter 16

  20. Hemiacetal formation is catalyzed by either acid or base Chapter 16

  21. Dissolving aldehydes (or ketones) in water causes formation of an equilibrium between the carbonyl compound and its hydrate • The hydrate is also called a gem-diol (gem i.e. geminal,indicates the presence of two identical substituents on the same carbon) • The equilibrum favors a ketone over its hydrate because the tetrahedral ketone hydrate is sterically crowded Chapter 16

  22. Acetals • An aldehyde (or ketone) in the presence of excess alcohol and an acid catalyst will form an acetal • Formation of the acetal proceeds via the corresponding hemiacetal • An acetal has two alkoxyl groups bonded to the same carbon Chapter 16

  23. Acetals are stable when isolated and purified • Acetal formation is reversible • An excess of water in the presence of an acid catalyst will hydrolyze an acetal to the corresponding aldehyde (or ketone) Chapter 16

  24. Acetal formation from ketones and simple alcohols is less favorable than formation from aldehydes • Formation of cyclic 5- and 6- membered ring acetals from ketones is, however, favorable • Such cyclic acetals are often used as protecting groups for aldehydes and ketones • These protecting groups can be removed using dilute aqueous acid Chapter 16

  25. Acetals as Protecting Groups • Acetal protecting groups are stable to most reagents except aqueous acid • Example: An ester can be reduced in the presence of a ketone protected as an acetal Chapter 16

  26. Thioacetals • Thioacetals can be formed by reaction of an aldehyde or ketone with a thiol • Thioacetals can be converted to CH2 groups by hydrogenation using a catalyst such as Raney nickel • This sequence provides a way to remove an aldehyde or ketone carbonyl oxygen Chapter 16

  27. The Addition of Primary and Secondary Amines • Aldehydes and ketones react with primary amines (and ammonia) to yield imines • They react with secondary amines to yield enamines Chapter 16

  28. Imines • These reactions occur fastest at pH 4-5 • Mild acid facilitates departure of the hydroxyl group from the aminoalcohol intermediate without also protonating the nitrogen of the amine starting compound Chapter 16

  29. Enamines • Secondary amines cannot form a neutral imine by loss of a second proton on nitrogen • An enamine is formed instead Chapter 16

  30. The Addition of Hydrogen Cyanide • Aldehydes and ketone react with HCN to form a cyanohydrin • A catalytic amount of cyanide helps to speed the reaction • The cyano group can be hydrolyzed or reduced • Hydrolysis of a cyanohydrin produces an a-hydroxycarboxylic acid (Sec. 18.8H) • Reduction of a cyanohydrin produces a b-aminoalcohol Chapter 16

  31. The Addition of Ylides: The Wittig Reaction • Aldehydes and ketones react with phosphorous ylides to produce alkenes • An ylide is a neutral molecule with adjacent positive and negative charges Chapter 16

  32. Reaction of triphenylphosphine with a primary or secondary alkyl halide produces a phosphonium salt • The phosphonium salt is deprotonated by a strong base to form the ylide Chapter 16

  33. Addition of the ylide to the carbonyl leads to formation of a four-membered ring oxaphosphetane • The oxaphophetane rearranges to the alkene and triphenylphosphine oxide • The driving force for the last reaction is formation of the very strong phosphorus-oxygen double bond in triphenylphosphine oxide Chapter 16

  34. The overall result of a Wittig reaction is formation of a C=C bond from a C=O bond Chapter 16

  35. Solved Problem: Make 2-Methyl-1-phenylprop-1-ene by a Wittig reaction Chapter 16

  36. The Horner-Wadsworth-Emmons reaction employs a phosphonate ester and generally leads to formation of an (E)-alkene Chapter 16

  37. The Addition of Organometallic Reagents: The Reformatsky Reaction • The Reformatsky reaction involves addition of an organozinc reagent to an aldehyde or ketone • The organozinc reagent is made from an a-bromo ester; the reaction gives a b-hydroxy ester • The b-hydroxyester is easily dehydrated to an a,b-unsaturated ester Chapter 16

  38. Oxidation of Aldehydes and Ketones • Aldehydes are generally much more easily oxidized than ketones • The Baeyer-Villiger Oxidation of Aldehydes and Ketones • The Baeyer-Villeger reaction results in insertion of an oxygen atom adjacent to a ketone or aldehyde carbonyl • Oxidation of a ketone yields an ester • A peroxyacid such as m-chloroperbenzoic (MCPBA) acid is used Chapter 16

  39. The migratory aptitude of a group attached to a carbonyl is H > phenyl > 3o alkyl > 2o alkyl > 1o alkyl > methyl Chapter 16

  40. Chemical Analysis of Aldehydes and Ketones • Tollens’ Test (Silver Mirror Test) • Aldehydes and ketones can be distinguished from each other on the basis of the Tollens test • The presence of an aldehyde results in formation of a silver mirror (by oxidation of the aldehyde and reduction of the silver cation) • a-Hydroxyketones also give a positive Tollens’ test Chapter 16

  41. Spectroscopic Properties of Aldehydes and Ketones • IR Spectra of Aldehydes and Ketones • Aldehydes and ketones have strong carbonyl stretching frequencies in the 1665-1780 cm-1 region • Conjugation shifts the IR frequency about 40 cm-1 lower because the carbonyl has less double bond character • Single bonds stretch more easily than double bonds • Vibrations of the C-H bond in an aldehyde gives two weak but characteristic bands at 2700-2775 and 2820-2900 cm-1 Chapter 16

  42. NMR Spectra of Aldehydes and Ketones • 13C NMR Spectra • Aldehyde and ketone carbonyl carbons give characteristic signals at d 180-220 • 1H NMR Spectra • Aldehyde protons give sharp signals at d 9-12 • The aldehyde proton often shows coupling to the protons on the a-carbon • Protons on the a carbon generally appear at d 2.0-2.3 Chapter 16