Chapter 17: Aldehydes and Ketones: Nucleophilic Addition to the Carbonyl Group 17.1: Nomenclature (please read) 17.2: Structure and Bonding: Carbonyl groups have a significant dipole moment Aldehyde 2.72 D Ketone 2.88 Carboxylic acid 1.74 Acid chloride 2.72 Ester 1.72 Amide 3.76 Nitrile 3.90 Water 1.85 Carbonyl carbons are electrophilic sites and can be attacked by nucleophiles. The carbonyl oxygen is a basic site.
17.3: Physical Properties (please read) 17.4: Sources of Aldehydes and Ketones (Table 17.1, p. 708) 1a. Oxidation of 1° and 2° alcohols (15.10) 1b. From carboxylic acids 1c. Ketones from aldehydes
Ozonolysis of alkenes (6.20) Hydration of alkynes (9.12) Friedel-Craft Acylation (12.7) - aryl ketones 5. Hydroformylation of alkenes (please read)
17.5: Reactions of Aldehydes and Ketones: A Review and a Preview Reactions of aldehydes and ketones: Review: Reduction to hydrocarbons a. Clemmenson reduction (Zn-Hg, HCl) b. Wolff-Kishner (H2NNH2, KOH, )
Reduction to 1° and 2° alcohols (15.2) 3. Addition of Grignard Reagents (14.6-14.7)
17.6: Principles of Nucleophilic Addition: Hydration of Aldehydes and Ketones Water can reversibly add to the carbonyl carbon of aldehydes and ketones to give 1,1-diols (geminal or gem-diols) R= H, H 99.9 % hydrate R= CH3, H 50 % R= (H3C)3C, H 17 % R= CH3, CH3 0.14 % R= CF3, CF3 > 99 % The hydration reaction is base and acid catalyzed Base-catalyzed mechanism (Fig. 17.1): hydroxide is a better nucleophile than water
Acid-catalyzed mechanism (Fig. 17.2): protonated carbonyl is a better electrophile The hydration is reversible Does adding acid or base change the amount of hydrate? Does a catalysts affect Go,G‡, both, or neither
17.7: Cyanohydrin Formation Addition of H-CN adds to the aldehydes and unhindered ketones. (related to the hydration reaction) The equilibrium favors cyanohydrin formation Mechanism of cyanohydron fromation (Fig. 17.3)
17.8: Acetal Formation Acetals are geminal diethers- structurally related to hydrates, which are geminal diols. hydrate (gem-diol) aldehyde hemi-acetal acetal (gem-diether) ketone hemi-ketal ketal (gem-diether)
Mechanism of acetal (ketal) formation is acid-catalyzed (Fig 17.4) Dean-Stark Trap The mechanism for acetal/ketal formation is reversible How is the direction of the reaction controlled?
Dioxolanes and dioxanes: cyclic acetal (ketals) from 1,2- and 1,3-diols 1,3-dioxolane 1,2-diol 1,3-dioxane 1,3-diol
17.9: Acetals (Ketals) as Protecting Groups Protecting group: Temporarily convert a functional group that is incompatible with a set of reaction conditions into a new functional group (with the protecting group) that is compatible with the reaction. The protecting group is then removed giving the original functional group (deprotection).
The reaction cannot be done directly, as shown. Why? 17.10: Reaction with Primary Amines: Imines (Schiff base) Aldehyde or ketone hemi-acetal or hemi-ketal acetal or ketal Aldehyde or ketone carbinolamine imine
Mechanism of imine formation (Fig. 17.5): See Table 17.4 for the related carbonyl derivative, oximes, hydrazone and semicarbazides (please read)
17.11: Reaction with Secondary Amines: Enamines Imine Iminium ion 1° amine: 2° amine: ketone with -protons iminium ion enamine Mechanism of enamine formation (Fig 17.6)
17.12: The Wittig Reaction 1979 Nobel Prize in Chemistry: Georg Wittig (Wittig Reaction) and H.C. Brown (Hydroboration) The synthesis of an alkene from the reaction of an aldehyde or ketone and a phosphorus ylide (Wittig reagent), a dipolar intermediate with formal opposite charges on adjacent atoms (overall charge neutral). triphenylphosphonium ylide (Wittig reagent) aldehyde or ketone alkene triphenylphosphine oxide Accepted mechanism (Fig. 17.7) (please read)
The Wittig reaction gives C=C in a defined location, based on the location of the carbonyl group (C=O) The Wittig reaction is highly selective for ketones and aldehydes; esters, lactones, nitriles and amides will not react but are tolerated in the substrate. Acidic groups (alcohols, amine and carboxylic acids) are not tolerated. Predicting the geometry (E/Z) of the alkene product is complex and is dependent upon the nature of the ylide.
17.13: Planning an Alkene Synthesis via the Wittig Reaction A Wittig reagent is prepared from the reaction of an alkyl halide with triphenylphosphine (Ph3P:) to give a phosphonium salt. The protons on the carbon adjacent to phosphorous are acidic. Deprotonation of the phosphonium salt with a strong base gives the ylide. A phosphorane is a neutral resonance structure of the ylide.
• There will be two possible Wittig routes to an alkene. • Analyze the structure retrosynthetically, i.e., work the synthesis out backworks • Disconnect (break the bond of the target that can be formed by a known reaction) the doubly bonded carbons. One becomes the aldehyde or ketone, the other the ylide
17.14: Stereoselective Addition to Carbonyl Groups (please read) 17.15: Oxidation of Aldehydes Increasing oxidation state
Aldehydes are oxidized by Cr(VI) reagents to carboxylic acids in aqueous acid. The reactions proceeds through the hydrate
17.16: Baeyer-Villiger Oxidation of Ketones. Oxidation of ketones with a peroxy acid (mCPBA) to give as esters Oxygen insertion occurs between carbonyl carbon and more the substituted a-carbon
19.17: Spectroscopic Analysis of Aldehydes and Ketones Infrared Spectroscopy: highly diagnostic for carbonyl groups Carbonyls have a strong C=O absorption peak between 1660 - 1770 cm1 Aldehydes also have two characteristic C–H absorptions around 2720 - 2820 cm1 Butanal 2-Butanone C-H 2720, 2815 cm-1 C=O (1730 cm-1) C-H C=O (1720 cm-1)
C=O stretches of aliphatic, conjugated, aryl and cyclic carbonyls: Conjugation moves the C=O stretch to lower energy (right, lower cm-1) Ring (angle) strain moves the C=O stretch to higher energy (left, higher cm-1)
1HNMR Spectra of Aldehydes and Ketones: The 1H chemical shift range for the aldehyde proton is 9-10 ppm The aldehyde proton will couple to the protons on the -carbon with a typical coupling constant of J 2 Hz A carbonyl will slightly deshield the protons on the -carbon; typical chemical shift range is 2.0 - 2.5 ppm = 1.65, sextet, J= 7.0, 2H = 2.4, dt, J= 1.8, 7.0, 2H = 1.65, t, J= 7.0, 3H = 9.8, t, J= 1.8, 1H
= 2.5 (2H, q, J = 7.3) 2.1 (3H, s) 1.1 (3H, t, J = 7.3) 7.0 -6.0 2.7 - 1.0 = 6.8 (1H, dq, J =15, 7.0) 6.1 (1H, d, J = 15) 2.6 (2H, q, J = 7.4) 1.9 (3H, d, J = 7.0 ) 1.1 (3H, t, J = 7.4)
13C NMR: The intensity of the carbonyl resonance in the 13C spectrum usually weak and sometimes not observed. The chemical shift range is diagnostic for the type of carbonyl ketones & aldehydes: = ~ 190 - 220 ppm carboxylic acids, esters, = ~ 165 - 185 ppm and amides = 220, 38, 23 = 174, 60, 27, 14, 9 carbonyl carbonyl CDCl3
C9H10O2 IR: 1695 cm-1 13C NMR: 191 163 130 128 115 65 15 3H (t, J= 7.5) 2H d, J= 8.5 2H d, J= 8.5 2H q, J= 7.5 1H s C10H12O IR: 1710 cm-1 13C NMR: 207 134 130 128 126 52 37 10 2H (q, J= 7.3) 3H (t, J= 7.3) 2H 5H
C9H10O 2.9 (2H, t, J = 7.7) 7.3 (2H, m) 7.2 (3H, m) 2.7 (2H, dt, J = 7.7, 1.5) 9.8 (1H, t, J =1.5) 9.7 - 9.9 7.0 - 7.8 3.1 - 2.5 129,128, 125 28 45 140 CDCl3 201