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The Abolitionist Development

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  1. The Antislavery Movement Dr. Stacey Robertson Bradley University

  2. Religion and Revolution • Religion • Quakers • B. Lay & J. Woolman • Revolution • Rhetoric of independence • God’s punishment • Blacks • Northern emancipation • Southern changes John Adams

  3. Gradual Emancipation • American Colonization Society, 1817 • Gradual, compensation, deportation • Support in both regions • Motivations?

  4. Immediate Emancipation • 2nd Great Awakening • William Lloyd Garrison • Printing career (Baltimore) • Genius of Universal Emancipation • African Americans • Move to Immediatism • ACS, 1829 • Jail • Tappan • Liberator, 1831 • Moral suasion & racism William Lloyd Garrison

  5. 1830s Antislavery • American Anti-Slavery Society, 1833 • State and local orgs. • Male and female • Tactics • Lecturing: Theodore Weld • Pamphlets & newspapers • Banned in the South • Boycott (Free Produce) • Petitioning • Topics? • Gag Rule Theodore Dwight Weld

  6. 1830s Antislavery • Mob opposition • Northern racism • Black laws • Fears • Nat Turner, ‘32 • NY Money • Foreigners • G. Thompson • Who participates? • Cincinnati • Interracial brothel

  7. Black Abolitionists • Separate organizing • Practical focus • Economic & Political power • Vigilance Comms, UGRR • Cooperation also • James Forten, Liberator, AAS, West • Paternalism • Middle class values • Frederick Douglass • Garrison too impractical Frederick Douglass

  8. 1840 Divide • Garrisonian “ultraism” • Women’s role • Grimké sisters • Importance of women • Fund-raising • Abby Kelley Angelina Grimké

  9. 1840 Divide • Political Third Party • Garrisonians • Corruption, Agitation • Failure of moral suasion • Pressure politics • Cooperation? • Garrisonian policy • Cost to political abolitionists James G. Birney

  10. Liberty Party • 1840 Election • 7,000 votes (out of 2.5 mill) • One-issue party • Policies: • De-nationalization • DC, military locations, high seas, territories • Anti-discrimination • Slow Growth • Expansion & Alliance • John P. Hale • Whigs, Democrats John P. Hale

  11. Free Soil Party • 1848 Martin Van Buren (ex Prez) • Partial success • 10% of vote • Helped elect Whig Taylor • Differences • Slave Power • Racial equality gone • Free Soil, Free Labor • Republican Party Martin Van Buren

  12. The Tumultuous 1850s • Abolitionist movement becomes less radical and more popular in 1850s • Key political developments occur • Leads to rise of Republicans • Raises the issue of violence for abolitionists

  13. The Tumultuous 1850s • Compromise of 1850 • Mexico Territory • California • Gold rush growth • Free? • Texas land dispute • DC and slavery Senate debate over Compromise

  14. The Tumultuous 1850s • Series of bills: Clay & Douglas • Texas gives up land, gets $10 million • Southwestern territories organized with no mention of slavery • No slave trade in DC • California admitted • Fugitive Slave Act

  15. The Tumultuous 1850s • Fugitive Slave Act • Most controversial • No jury trial for fugitive • Citizens required to assist in recovery of slaves • Commissioners pay • Impact on Blacks • Flee to Canada • Kidnapping • Impact on abolition

  16. The Tumultuous 1850s • Kansas-Nebraska Act 1854 • Stephen Douglas (pictured here) • Repeal of Missouri Compromise (36 30 line) • Last hope gone • Slave Power fears • Growth of Republicans

  17. The Tumultuous 1850s • Bloody Kansas • “Bleeding Kansas” • Popular sovereignty • Presumptions: NE free, KS slave • Northern abols • “Beecher bibles” • Two governments • “Sacking of Lawrence,” May 21, 1856 (pictured)

  18. The Tumultuous 1850s • Caning of Sumner • May 22, 1856 • “Crime Against Kansas” speech • Targets Andrew Butler • Butler’s cousin Preston Brooks • Regional reactions

  19. The Tumultuous 1850s • Election of 1856 • Republicans nominate John C. Frémont (pictured) • Wife Jessie • Democrats: James Buchanan • Racism (Black Republicans) • Pierce and peace in Kansas

  20. The Tumultuous 1850s • Dred Scott, 1857 • Slave taken to free territories (IL, WI) • Sues for freedom • First heard in 1846 • Ruling: • Scott not free and blacks have no rts that whites have to respect • Republicans

  21. The Tumultuous 1850s • John Brown and Harpers Ferry